Diabetic foot infection occurs in patients with diabetes as they are prone to microorganism invasion and multiplication in the soft tissue or bone (anywhere below the malleoli) that leads to host inflammatory response that usually results to tissue destruction.
Staphylococci and streptococci are the most common causative organisms although most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial.
Most infections usually start with a break in the protective cutaneous envelope of the skin that resulted from trauma or neuropathic ulceration.
Management of diabetic foot ulcer in patients with diabetes needs an interdisciplinary approach to address glycemic control, infection, offloading of high-pressure areas, lower extremity vascular status and local wound care.
Urogenital infections remain a major reason for women to visit their family physician and their subsequent referral to obstetrics and gynaecology or urology specialists. The association between abnormal vaginal microbiota and an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as an increased rate of preterm labour, indicates the need to better understand and manage urogenital health in women. Probiotics are “live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. As such, there is a sound rationale for using probiotics to maintain female vaginal and bladder health.