Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogenous metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia with carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism disturbance which results from defects in either insulin secretion or action.
Patients with DM usually present with polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss.
Type 1 DM is caused by beta cell destruction which leads to complete insulin deficiency. It may be immune mediated or idiopathic.
Patients may present with ketoacidosis or acute onset of hyperglycemia while other patients may resemble type 2 DM or symptoms of other autoimmune disorders.
Type 2 DM is the most common form of diabetes. It is secondary to defect in insulin secretion concomitant with insulin resistance.
Majority of patients are asymptomatic. Ketoacidosis is uncommon and is usually secondary to stress (eg infection).
In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on metformin, semaglutide may have a greater impact than canagliflozin in reducing HbA1c levels and bodyweight, according to the phase IIIb SUSTAIN 8* trial presented at EASD 2019.
In pancreatic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, the presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with reduced survival and larger tumour, as well as with increased risk of death after treatment, according to a meta-analysis.
The incidence of cardiovascular (CV) death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke (three-point MACE*) was comparable in individuals with early stage type 2 diabetes (T2D) who received the DPP-4** inhibitor linagliptin or the sulfonylurea glimepiride in addition to usual care, according to results of the CAROLINA*** trial.
The presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with structural abnormalities in the heart, reduced quality of life (QoL), and an elevated risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and death, according to a recent study.
The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has released five new guidelines at the ESC Congress 2019, recommending an even lower LDL-C* target in patients at very high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the use of SGLT2** inhibitors and GLP-1*** receptor agonists as first-line treatments in those with diabetes to reduce their CVD risk.
New drug applications approved by US FDA as of 16 - 30 September 2019 which includes New Molecular Entities (NMEs) and new biologics. It does not include Tentative Approvals. Supplemental approvals may have occurred since the original approval date.
Recently published cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) in patients with diabetes (DM) have led to updates in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in DM patients. These updates were reflected in the 2019 ESC guidelines on diabetes, prediabetes, and CVD, a collaboration between ESC and EASD*.
For postmenopausal women with diabetes, being hostile may be bad for the heart, with a recent study suggesting that such personality trait contributes to an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD).
Almost half of Asian patients with dyslipidaemia and hypertension, as well as half of those on pharmacotherapy, have achieved their blood pressure (BP) treatment goals, a Singapore study has shown. Moreover, BP goal attainment is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) control.
Engaging in vigorous physical activity for 75 minutes or more per week could reduce glucose levels in women trying to conceive, a recent study from Singapore showed. However, this impact was not demonstrated in women who engaged in moderate physical activity for 150 minutes or more per week.