Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogenous metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia with carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism disturbance which results from defects in either insulin secretion or action.
Patients with DM usually present with polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss.
Type 1 DM is caused by beta cell destruction which leads to complete insulin deficiency. It may be immune mediated or idiopathic.
Patients may present with ketoacidosis or acute onset of hyperglycemia while other patients may resemble type 2 DM or symptoms of other autoimmune disorders.
Type 2 DM is the most common form of diabetes. It is secondary to defect in insulin secretion concomitant with insulin resistance.
Majority of patients are asymptomatic. Ketoacidosis is uncommon and is usually secondary to stress (eg infection).
The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin appears to have therapeutic potential in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome, exerting beneficial effects on apnoea-hypopnea index, hypoxaemia during sleep and daytime sleepiness, as shown in a study.
The risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) appears to be lower among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), suggest the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Multiple analyses of the DAPA-HF* trial have shown that dapagliflozin, in addition to standard therapy, reduces the risk of multiple heart failure (HF) outcomes including cardiovascular (CV) death and hospitalization for HF (HHF) in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with the effects consistent regardless of age and type 2 diabetes (T2D) status.
A weighted score that consists of four blood biomarkers—triglyceride-to-high density lipoprotein (TG-to-HDL) ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), ferritin and adiponectin—is strongly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Chinese adults living in Singapore, as shown in a study.
Using a composite score of four blood biomarkers may be useful for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Chinese population, suggests a nested case-control analysis of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS).
Use of a closed-loop system, also known as artificial pancreas, led to better glycaemic control in terms of more time spent in the target glycaemic range than a sensor-augmented insulin pump in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), according to the iDCL* study.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who initiate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may have an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), according to a matched cohort study.