Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogenous metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia with carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism disturbance which results from defects in either insulin secretion or action.
Patients with DM usually present with polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss.
Type 1 DM is caused by beta cell destruction which leads to complete insulin deficiency. It may be immune mediated or idiopathic.
Patients may present with ketoacidosis or acute onset of hyperglycemia while other patients may resemble type 2 DM or symptoms of other autoimmune disorders.
Type 2 DM is the most common form of diabetes. It is secondary to defect in insulin secretion concomitant with insulin resistance.
Majority of patients are asymptomatic. Ketoacidosis is uncommon and is usually secondary to stress (eg infection).
Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) may be at risk of developing gastric cancer even after receiving Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy, demonstrated a study from Hong Kong.
The coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Asian patients with heart failure (HF) who were receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) attenuated CRT-induced left ventricular (LV) reverse modelling — a predictor of event-free survival — and was associated with worse clinical outcomes compared with patients without T2D, the PEACH* study shows.
A Mediterranean-based eating plan supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil helped delay the initiation of glucose-lowering medications among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) controlled with lifestyle management, according to a subgroup analysis of the PREDIMED* trial.
Remission of type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery confers benefits for albuminuria and stabilizes prognostic risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) but yields negligible improvements in estimated glomerular filtration rate, according to a study.
Use of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes affords a decrease in the risk of heart failure (HF) that is not associated with improved glycaemic control, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have neutral effect on the risk, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) severity z-score independently predicts the incidence of diabetes in Asians, providing additional predictive information to individual MetS components and proving to be a stronger predictor than MetS, according to a Singapore study.
A single course of the Fc receptor–nonbinding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody teplizumab appears to significantly reduce the speed of progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in high-risk, nondiabetic individuals, according to the results of the phase II Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet study.
Progressive lipolysis may be reduced via the improved antilipolytic effect in adipose tissue, which leads to a reduction in future weight loss caused by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggests a recent study.
Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with earlier age at voice break, pubic hair development, axillary hair and acne in sons, as well as with earlier age at menarche, breast development, pubic hair development, axillary hair and acne in daughters, a study has found. These associations appear to be mediated by higher childhood body mass index in sons and partly so in daughters.