Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogenous metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia with carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism disturbance which results from defects in either insulin secretion or action.
Patients with DM usually present with polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss.
Type 1 DM is caused by beta cell destruction which leads to complete insulin deficiency. It may be immune mediated or idiopathic.
Patients may present with ketoacidosis or acute onset of hyperglycemia while other patients may resemble type 2 DM or symptoms of other autoimmune disorders.
Type 2 DM is the most common form of diabetes. It is secondary to defect in insulin secretion concomitant with insulin resistance.
Majority of patients are asymptomatic. Ketoacidosis is uncommon and is usually secondary to stress (eg infection).
Real-world data from the PCORnet* Bariatric Study suggest that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may be preferable to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in inducing and maintaining type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remission.
Use of combination therapy with sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obese patients yields favourable effects on glycaemic control, body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) without increasing the incidence of adverse events, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
A mobile-based screening application (app) has been shown to increase postpartum compliance rates and improve the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among women with gestational diabetes, reports a recent study.
In pregnant women with prediabetes or pregestational type 2 diabetes (T2D), metformin also yields protective effects on the risk of pre-eclampsia, as shown in two studies presented at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) 40th Annual Pregnancy Meeting.
The risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is significantly higher among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than those with type 2 diabetes (T2D), results of the CARRÉ* study reveal. Such risk persisted even after adjusting for traditional CV risk factors, which suggests that systemic inflammation is an independent contributor to CV risk.
A recent retrospective study from Singapore identified several factors associated with a higher risk of mortality following hip fracture, including male sex, older age, and a higher number of comorbidities.