Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogenous metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia with carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism disturbance which results from defects in either insulin secretion or action.
Patients with DM usually present with polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss.
Type 1 DM is caused by beta cell destruction which leads to complete insulin deficiency. It may be immune mediated or idiopathic.
Patients may present with ketoacidosis or acute onset of hyperglycemia while other patients may resemble type 2 DM or symptoms of other autoimmune disorders.
Type 2 DM is the most common form of diabetes. It is secondary to defect in insulin secretion concomitant with insulin resistance.
Majority of patients are asymptomatic. Ketoacidosis is uncommon and is usually secondary to stress (eg infection).
Adding dapagliflozin to standard of care (SOC) significantly reduces the risk of worsening kidney function, death due to kidney or cardiovascular (CV) disease, and all-cause mortality compared with SOC alone in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), regardless of whether they have type 2 diabetes (T2D), reveals the DAPA-CKD* trial — showing dapagliflozin charting new territories from diabetes to the renal realm.
Young adults who follow a plant-based, high-quality diet are less likely to develop diabetes and gain weight through middle age, according to data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
For patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), long-term survival decreases in the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a study reports.
Metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) appears to contribute to an early reduction in haemoglobin levels, which in turn leads to a higher incidence of moderate anaemia, according to data from the MASTERMIND study.
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who initiated SGLT2* inhibitors (SGLT2is) had better cardiovascular (CV) outcomes than those on DPP-4** inhibitors, shows the large, global, real-world study, CVD-REAL 2.
In the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the first-in-class GLP-1/glucagon dual-receptor agonist cotadutide confers positive effects on body weight, alanine aminotransferase levels, and markers of liver fat and fibrosis, although these benefits appear to come with adverse gastrointestinal events, as shown in a phase IIb study.
In the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, both glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) and sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) help lower blood pressure, improve glucose control without inducing weight gain, and confer cardio- and renoprotection, as shown in a study.
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.