diabetes%20mellitus%20(pediatric)
DIABETES MELLITUS (PEDIATRIC)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
It can occur at any age and the earlier the onset, the more serious is the long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs due to the chronic hyperglycemia with diabetes mellitus patients having <10 year in life span compared to non-DM patients.
Type 1 DM patients have complete insulin deficiency due to beta-cell destruction. It may be immune-mediated or idiopathic. More commonly occurs in children 7-15 year of age, but may occur at any age.
Type 2 DM patients have insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.
Neonatal DM is hyperglycemia that occurs in the first 6 months of life.

Introduction

  • Can occur at any age & the earlier the onset, the more serious the long-term damage, dysfunction, & failure of various organs due to the chronic hyperglycemia w/ diabetes mellitus (DM) patients having <10 years in life span compared to non-DM patients 

Definition

  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both

Signs and Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

  • Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, ketonemia & ketonuria w/ the following for several week:
    • Polyuria
    • Polydipsia
    • Polyphagia
    • Weight loss
  • May also present as severe dehydration, shock & diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

  • Overweight or obese
  • Glycosuria w/o ketonuria
    • Some may present w/ ketonuria
  • Absent or mild polyuria
  • May present w/ ketoacidosis associated w/ stress, infection or other illness
  • Acanthosis nigricans
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
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