Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
It can occur at any age and the earlier the onset, the more serious is the long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs due to the chronic hyperglycemia with diabetes mellitus patients having <10 year in life span compared to non-DM patients.
Type 1 DM patients have complete insulin deficiency due to beta-cell destruction. It may be immune-mediated or idiopathic. More commonly occurs in children 7-15 year of age, but may occur at any age.
Type 2 DM patients have insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.
Neonatal DM is hyperglycemia that occurs in the first 6 months of life.
The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist liraglutide can bring sugar levels under control in children with type 2 diabetes (T2D) when added to metformin with or without basal insulin, although such benefit is gained at the expense of an increased frequency of gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs), according to the results of the phase III Ellipse Trial.
A 26-week regimen of liraglutide effectively improved glycaemic control in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who had inadequate response to metformin, according to the results of the phase III Ellipse* trial presented as a poster at the recent Pediatric Academic Societies meeting (PAS 2019).
The use of a hybrid closed-loop insulin pump, which has shown promise in improving glycaemic outcomes in adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes, may also be beneficial in children, according to a study presented at ENDO 2018.
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