diabetes%20insipidus
DIABETES INSIPIDUS
Diabetes insipidus is a polyuric disease characterized by excretion of a large volume of hypotonic urine and hypernatremia. It is due to the absence of antidiuretic hormone.
Central (hypothalamic or neurohypophyseal) diabetes insipidus is the inability to secrete & produce vasopressin in the neurohypophyseal system. It is due to damage to the pituitary gland & hypothalamus, may be due to diseases, head injuries, neurosurgery, infection or genetic or autoimmune disorders.
In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, there is inappropriate renal response to vasopressin. Kidney function may be impaired by drugs & by chronic disorders like polycystic kidney disease, sickle cell disease, kidney failure, partial ureteral block, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, low protein diet & genetic disorders.
Primary polydipsia have abnormal increase in fluid intake.
  1. Baylis PH, Cheetham T. Diabetes insipidus. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Jul;79(1):84-89. PMID: 9771260
  2. Loh JA, Verbalis JG. Disorders of water and salt metabolism associated with pituitary disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008 Mar;37(1):213-234. PMID: 18226738
  3. Saboria P, Tipton GA, Chan JCM. Diabetes insipidus. Pediatr Rev. 2000 Apr;21(14):122-129. PMID: 10756175
  4. Baylis PH. Hypothalamus and pituitary. Comprehensive clinical endocrinology. 3rd ed. London: Mosby; 2002
  5. Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, et al/Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. William's Textbook of Endocrinology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier; 2003:289-300
  6. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Endocrinology/15/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Endocrinology.xml
  7. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  8. Cooperman M. Diabetes Insipidus. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117648-overview. Nov 2003
  9. Chan JCM, Roth K. Pediatric Diabetes Insipidus. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/919886-overview. Nov 2001
  10. Bichet DG. Treatment of central diabetes insipidus. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-central-diabetes-insipidus. Sep 2013.
  11. Bichet DG. Treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus. Nov 2013.
  12. Robinson AG, Verbalis JG. Posterior pituitary. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, et al, eds. William’s Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th edition. Philadelphia; 2011:291-323.
  13. John CA, Day MW. Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Nurse. 2012 Apr;32(2):e1-7. doi: 10.4037/ccn2012904. PMID: 22467619
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Endocrinology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Hannah Wong, 30 Sep 2019

Taisho Pharmaceutical launches Lusefi®, an oral anti-diabetic medication for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The medication is expected to lower blood glucose and provide adequate glycaemic control, serving as a new alternative prescription for T2DM. Lusefi, with its active ingredient luseogliflozin hydrate, is available in the form of 2.5 mg and 5 mg tablets.

6 days ago
In pancreatic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, the presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with reduced survival and larger tumour, as well as with increased risk of death after treatment, according to a meta-analysis.
01 Apr 2019
Basal-bolus therapy using glargine 300 U/mL and insulin glulisine is superior to twice-daily injections of insulin degludec/aspart for glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia, a new study suggests.