depression
DEPRESSION

Depression is a mood disorder wherein the patient have a pervasive sad mood or loss of interest in most activities for at least 2 weeks.

It can cause significant distress & impairment. It is also a chronic, episodic and relapsing syndrome.

Treatment can either be by psychotherapy alone or pharmacotherapy alone or psychotherapy combined with pharmacological therapy.

  1. Duloxetine (Cymbalta): a new SNRI for depression. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2004 Oct;46(1193):81-82. PMID: 15480298
  2. Ferguson JM. Depression: diagnosis and management for primary care physicians. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Oct;2(5):173-178
  3. Depont F, Rambelomanana S, Le Puil S, et al. Antidepressants: psychiatrists' opinions and clinical practice [abstract]. Acta Psychiatr Scan. 2003 Jul;108(1):24-31. PMID: 12807374
  4. Czeh B, Michaelis T, Watanabe T, et al. Stress-induced changes in cerebral metabolites, hippocampal volume, and cell proliferation are prevented by antidepressant treatment with tianeptine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001 Oct;98(22):12796-12801. PMID: 11675510
  5. Kent JM. SNaRIs, NaSSAs, and NaRIs: new agents for the treatment of depression. Lancet. 2000 Mar;355(9207):911-918. PMID: 10752718
  6. Kasper S, Olié JP. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of tianeptine versus SSRI in the short-term treatment of depression [abstract]. Eur Psychiatry. 2002 Jul;17(Suppl 3):331-340. PMID: 15177089
  7. Whooley MA, Simon GE. Managing depression in medical outpatients. N Engl J Med. 2000 Dec;343(26):1942-4950. PMID: 11136266
  8. Waintraub L, Septein L, Azoulay P. Efficacy and safety of tianeptine in major depression: evidence from a 3-month controlled clinical trial versus paroxetine [abstract]. CNS Drugs. 2002;16(1):65-75. PMID: 11772119
  9. Sonawalla S, Chakraborty N, Parikh R. Treatment of major depression and anxiety with the selective serotonin re-uptake enhancer tianeptine in the outpatient psychiatric care setting of India. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003 Feb;101(2):116-117,124. PMID: 12841497
  10. Rush AJ. Mood disorders: treatment of depression. In: Sadock BJ, et al. Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009
  11. MedWorm http://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Psychiatry/172/ www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Psychiatry-News.xml
  12. Ministry of Health Singapore. Depression. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. Mar 2004
  13. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Major depression in adults in primary care. http://bit.ly/Depr0512. May 2012.
  14. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Health care guideline: major depression in adults for mental health care providers. http://www.icsi.org. 2002.
  15. National Institute of Mental Health. Depression. http://www.nimh.gov. 2002.
  16. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. The treatment and management of depression in adults. http://www.nice.org.uk. Oct 2009. Accessed 14 Jan 2011.
  17. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. 3rd ed. Psychiatryonline. http://psychiatryonline.org. Oct 2010.
  18. American Psychiatric Association. Depressive disorders. In: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:155-188.
  19. Bauer M, Pfennig A, Severus E, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders, part 1: update 2013 on the acute and continuation treatment of unipolar depressive disorders. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Jul;14(5):334-385. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2013.804195. PMID: 23879318
  20. Bauer M, Severus E, Kohler S, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders. part 2: maintenance treatment of major depressive disorder-update 2015. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;16(2):76-95. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2014.1001786. PMID: 25677972
  21. Trangle M, Gursky J, Haight R, et al. Adult depression in primary care. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). http://www.icsi.org. Mar 2016.
  22. Kennedy SH, Lam RW, McIntyre RS, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 3. pharmacological treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep;61(9):540-560. doi: 10.1177/0706743716659417. PMID: 27486148
  23. Parikh SV, Quilty LC, Ravitz P, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: section 2. psychological treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep;61(9):524-539. doi: 10.1177/0706743716659418. PMID: 27486150
  24. Chapman AL. Dialectal behavior therapy. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2006 Sep;3(9):62-68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID: 20975829
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Psychiatry - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Elvira Manzano, 4 days ago

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), in an update of its 2013 recommendations, called on clinicians to offer risk-reducing medications to women who are at increased risk for breast cancer but at low risk for adverse effects.

Pearl Toh, 5 days ago
The use of SGLT-2* inhibitors was not associated with a higher risk of severe or nonsevere urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with DPP**-4 inhibitors or GLP-1*** receptor agonists, a population-based cohort study shows.
Yesterday
Cryptococcosis is more common in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nontransplant (NHNT) patients, and this population tends to have more localized pulmonary cryptococcosis and significantly higher 90-day mortality, reports a study.
5 days ago
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent risk factor for all-cause dementia, with the greatest risk observed in patients who are insulin-dependent and obese, a recent study has found.