Croup is a viral infection that causes erythema and edema of the tracheal walls and narrowing of the subglottic region. It is often characterized by an acute, rapidly progressing respiratory disease.
It is a medical emergency in children and requiring immediate treatment.
Most common causes are parainfluenza virus 1&2 and respiratory syncytial virus.
Occurrence of symptoms is usually at night and with abrupt onset and improve during daytime.
Long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) plus long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) combinations compare with inhalers containing both LABA and corticosteroid (LABA-ICS) in terms of reducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, although the LAMA-LABA combination is more favourable as it is associated with fewer episodes of severe pneumonia, according to a study.
There are various ear, nose, and throat (ENT) conditions which present to the GP’s clinic. Dr Jason Hwang, an ENT Consultant from the Department of Otolaryngology at Gleneagles Hospital in Singapore, speaks on how the majority of the conditions can be effectively managed at the primary care level seeing that these can be treated medically without the need for surgical intervention.