croup
CROUP
Croup is a viral infection that causes erythema and edema of the tracheal walls and narrowing of the subglottic region. It is often characterized by an acute, rapidly progressing respiratory disease.
It is a medical emergency in children and requiring immediate treatment.
Most common causes are parainfluenza virus 1&2 and respiratory syncytial virus.
Occurrence of symptoms is usually at night and with abrupt onset and improve during daytime.

Differential Diagnosis

Diphtheria
  • Characterized by malaise, sore throat, anorexia, & low-grade fever
  • W/in 2-3 days, pharyngeal exam may show a typical gray-white membrane adherent to the tissue that bleeds when attempted to be removed
  • W/ insidious course but sudden respiratory obstruction may occur
Epiglottitis
  • Characterized by sudden onset of high fever, dysphagia, drooling & anxious appearance
  • Patient prefers to sit forward in sniffing position
  • Barking cough is rarely observed
Tracheitis
  • Patient appears febrile, toxic & gives poor response to Epinephrine
Other Causes of Stridor
  • Foreign body
  • Retropharyngeal abscess
  • Hereditary angioedema
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Respirology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Elvira Manzano, 02 Oct 2018
Triple therapy with budesonide, glycopyrrolate, and formoterol in one metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) appears effective and is well-tolerated in patients with symptomatic moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) irrespective of exacerbation history, the multicentre, phase III KRONOS* trial has shown.
Dr. Fanny Wai-San Ko, Dr. Wing-Ho Yip, 15 Aug 2018
Although a majority of patients can achieve good asthma control with the use of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and bronchodilators, some patients’ asthma remain uncontrolled despite the use of these medications.
Stephen Padilla, 14 Jan 2019
Overall, the risk of lung cancer is higher in former and current smokers with higher concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), according to a study. Additionally, circulating hsCRP is not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma and may reflect a prediagnostic disease state rather than a causal risk for lung cancer.
20 Feb 2018
Dr Michael Lim, consultant of the Division of Paediatric Pulmonary and Sleep in National University Hospital, Singapore, shares his insights with Pearl Toh on diagnosing and managing paediatric asthma in the primary care setting.