constipation%20in%20adults%20-%20chronic%20functional
CONSTIPATION IN ADULTS - CHRONIC FUNCTIONAL
Constipation is an unsatisfactory defecation distinguished by difficult stool passage, infrequent stools or both.
Difficult stool passage may include straining, feeling of difficulty in passing stool, incomplete evacuation, lumpy/hard stools, prolonged time to defecate, need for manual maneuver to pass stool, abdominal discomfort and feeling of anorectal blockade.
Chronic constipation is considered when symptoms of constipation have existed ≥3 months.
Symptoms of chronic constipation may be due to dysfunction of intestinal motility, visceral sensitivity, anorectal musculature or the enteric nervous system.
  1. Arce DA, Ermocilla CA, Costa H. Evaluation of constipation. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jun;65(11):2283-2290. PMID: 12074527
  2. American Gastroenterology Chronic Constipation Task Force. An evidence-based approach to the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(Suppl 1):S1-S4. PMID: 16008640
  3. Brandt LJ, Prather CM, Quigley EM, et al. Systematic review on the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(Suppl 1):S5-S22. PMID: 16008641
  4. Chinese Society of Gastroenterology & Chinese Medical Association. Consensus on the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2004;5(3):134-137. PMID: 15612250
  5. Lembo A, Camilleri M. Chronic Constipation. N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct;349(14):1360-1368. PMID: 14523145
  6. Locke GR 3rd, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF. American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement: guidelines on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2000 Dec;119(6):1761-1766. PMID: 11113098
  7. Locke GR 3rd, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF; American Gastroenterological Association. AGA technical review on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2000 Dec;119(6):1766-1778. PMID: 11113099
  8. Rao SS. Constipation: evaluation and treatment. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2003 Jun;32(2):659-683. PMID: 12858610
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Gastroenterology/17/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Gastroenterology.xml
  10. American Gastroenterological Association. AGA technical review on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jan;144:218-238. http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0016-5085/PIIS0016508512015442.pdf?mis=.pdf&refissn=0016-5085&refuid=S0016-5085%2812%2901545-4. Accessed 28 Jan 2014. PMID: 23261065
  11. American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jan;144:211-217. http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085%2812%2901545-4/fulltext. Accessed 28 Jan 2014. PMID: 23261064
  12. Gwee KA, Ghoshal UC, Gonlachanvit S, et al. Primary care management of chronic constipation in Asia: the ANMA chronic constipation tool. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Apr;19(2):149-160. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3644651/pdf/jnm-19-149.pdf. Accessed 28 Jan 2014. PMID: 23667746
  13. Camilleri M. Disorders of gastrointestinal motility. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9781455750177001367. Accessed 18 Jan 2016:888-889.
  14. Lacy BE, Mearin F, Chang L, et al. Bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2016 May;150(6):1393-1407. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.031.
  15. Sabrado CW, Neto IJFC, Pinto RA, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of constipation: a clinical update based on the Rome IV criteria. Journal of Coloproctology. Apr-Jun 2018;38(2):137-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcol.2018.02.003.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Gastroenterology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Pank Jit Sin, 27 Dec 2017
The addition of synbiotics to the diet of adults suffering from functional constipation may lead to significant improvement in constipation syndroms. 
Elaine Soliven, 07 Nov 2018

The combination of probiotic bifidobacteria supplementation and resistance training may improve cognitive function in healthy elderly individuals, according to a recent study.

5 days ago
Organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes rapidly increase participation and may lead to reduced rates of CRC incidence and related mortality, reports a recent study.