constipation%20in%20adults%20-%20chronic%20functional
CONSTIPATION IN ADULTS - CHRONIC FUNCTIONAL
Constipation is an unsatisfactory defecation distinguished by difficult stool passage, infrequent stools or both.
Difficult stool passage may include straining, feeling of difficulty in passing stool, incomplete evacuation, lumpy/hard stools, prolonged time to defecate, need for manual maneuver to pass stool, abdominal discomfort and feeling of anorectal blockade.
Chronic constipation is considered when symptoms of constipation have existed ≥3 months.
Symptoms of chronic constipation may be due to dysfunction of intestinal motility, visceral sensitivity, anorectal musculature or the enteric nervous system.
  1. Arce DA, Ermocilla CA, Costa H. Evaluation of constipation. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jun;65(11):2283-2290. PMID: 12074527
  2. American Gastroenterology Chronic Constipation Task Force. An evidence-based approach to the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(Suppl 1):S1-S4. PMID: 16008640
  3. Brandt LJ, Prather CM, Quigley EM, et al. Systematic review on the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(Suppl 1):S5-S22. PMID: 16008641
  4. Chinese Society of Gastroenterology & Chinese Medical Association. Consensus on the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation. Chin J Dig Dis. 2004;5(3):134-137. PMID: 15612250
  5. Lembo A, Camilleri M. Chronic Constipation. N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct;349(14):1360-1368. PMID: 14523145
  6. Locke GR 3rd, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF. American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement: guidelines on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2000 Dec;119(6):1761-1766. PMID: 11113098
  7. Locke GR 3rd, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF; American Gastroenterological Association. AGA technical review on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2000 Dec;119(6):1766-1778. PMID: 11113099
  8. Rao SS. Constipation: evaluation and treatment. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2003 Jun;32(2):659-683. PMID: 12858610
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Gastroenterology/17/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Gastroenterology.xml
  10. American Gastroenterological Association. AGA technical review on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jan;144:218-238. http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0016-5085/PIIS0016508512015442.pdf?mis=.pdf&refissn=0016-5085&refuid=S0016-5085%2812%2901545-4. Accessed 28 Jan 2014. PMID: 23261065
  11. American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2013 Jan;144:211-217. http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085%2812%2901545-4/fulltext. Accessed 28 Jan 2014. PMID: 23261064
  12. Gwee KA, Ghoshal UC, Gonlachanvit S, et al. Primary care management of chronic constipation in Asia: the ANMA chronic constipation tool. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Apr;19(2):149-160. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3644651/pdf/jnm-19-149.pdf. Accessed 28 Jan 2014. PMID: 23667746
  13. Camilleri M. Disorders of gastrointestinal motility. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9781455750177001367. Accessed 18 Jan 2016:888-889.
  14. Lacy BE, Mearin F, Chang L, et al. Bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2016 May;150(6):1393-1407. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.031.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Gastroenterology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
27 Jan 2018
There is an over-representation of women in published reports of celecoxib drug-induced liver injury (DILI), according to a recent study. Latency has been shown to be short (<3 months) in most patients, but some of them may present with DILI after prolonged use of celecoxib.
22 Mar 2016
A recent study showed that routine use of alpha galactosidase (AG) has no benefit in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients.
15 Nov 2017
Both hatha yoga and a low-FODMAP (Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides and Polyol) diet can alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as improve a range of other psychological and physiological health parameters, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a study has shown.
Rachel Soon, 14 Dec 2016

More well-designed studies are needed to confirm the benefits of various probiotics currently promoted for gut health, according to experts.