Constipation is an unsatisfactory defecation distinguished by difficult stool passage, infrequent stools or both.
Difficult stool passage may include straining, feeling of difficulty in passing stool, incomplete evacuation, lumpy/hard stools, prolonged time to defecate, need for manual maneuver to pass stool, abdominal discomfort and feeling of anorectal blockade.
Chronic constipation is considered when symptoms of constipation have existed ≥3 months.
Symptoms of chronic constipation may be due to dysfunction of intestinal motility, visceral sensitivity, anorectal musculature or the enteric nervous system.

Constipation%20in%20adults%20-%20chronic%20functional Diagnosis


  • Thorough history and physical exam in many cases can rule out most secondary causes of constipation eg colonic diseases (anal fissure, hemorrhoids, cancer, proctitis, stricture), neurologic disorders (spinal cord lesions or injury, parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis), disturbances in metabolism (diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug side effects (antispasmodics, iron and calcium supplements, opioids), or other conditions (depression, immobility, cardiac disease, cognitive impairment, scleroderma)


  • Current bowel regimen and pattern
    • Use of Bristol stool scale may help in better characterizing bowel habits and fecal consistency
  • Associated abdominal pain or distress that is less severe and not the main symptom as compared with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    • IBS may be suggested by a history of predominant abdominal pain, bloating, malaise, upper GI (eg dyspepsia, heartburn) and urinary symptoms, increased rectal sensation, anxiety and depression
  • Toileting habits, eg unusual postures on toilet to ease stool expulsion
  • Posterior vaginal pressure, perineum support or digitation of rectum to ease rectal release
  • Failure to discharge enema fluid
  • Pelvic floor dysfunction may be suggested by prolonged and excessive straining prior to elimination; when evacuatory defects are pronounced, soft stools or even enema fluid is difficult to pass; need for perineal or vaginal pressure or digital evacuation is also indicative
    • Evacuatory disorders do not respond well to laxatives
  • Medication history including products used to relieve constipation or the use of opiates and codeine
  • Inquire also on patient’s obstetric and surgical history, diet and fluid intake, lifestyle (activity level) and occupation

Physical Examination

  • Should be done to rule out diseases to which the constipation is secondary, eg abdominal mass from an organic cause, dry skin from hypothyroidism

Rectal Exam 

  • Performed with patient in left lateral position
  • Inspect perianal area to look for fissures, fistulas, external hemorrhoids
  • Determine extent of perineal descent while patient, at rest, bears down
    • Reduced descent may indicate inability to relax pelvic floor muscles during defecation
    • Excessive descent may show laxity of the perineum which may be caused by childbirth or several years of straining

Digital Exam of the Rectum

  • Check for fecal impaction, anal stricture or fissure, internal hemorrhoids, or rectal masses
  • Lax anal orifice may suggest neurologic disorder or trauma as the cause of impaired sphincter function
  • Inability or difficulty in inserting the finger into the anal canal may suggest elevated anal sphincter tone at rest or anal stricture
  • Spasm of pelvic floor may be suggested by tenderness at the posterior aspect of the rectum
  • Refer patients with normal digital rectal exam findings and persistent symptoms for anorectal testing to rule out defecatory disorders

Specialist Referral

  • In patients presenting with constipation without alarm symptoms, there is not sufficient data to make recommendations for routine use of colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, barium enema, thyroid function tests, serum calcium, etc
    • A complete blood count (CBC) may be done to evaluate chronic constipation in the absence of other signs and symptoms
    • Specific metabolic diagnostic tests (eg thyroid and renal function tests, fasting blood sugar) may be performed in patients with additional signs or symptoms of an organic disorder
  • Routine colon cancer screen tools are recommended in all patients >50 years old
    • >40 years in areas with high prevalence of gastric cancer
  • In a patient who presents with alarm symptoms or is >50 years of age, blood biochemistry, imaging studies or colonoscopy are needed to verify the diagnosis, exclude organic disease, and determine corresponding treatment
    • Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy can identify lesions that narrow or occlude the bowel
  • Colonoscopy is preferred in patients with iron-deficiency anemia, positive guaiac stool test, or 1st-degree relative with colon cancer
    • Alternatively, barium enema and flexible sigmoidoscopy combined have the potential to reveal colonic dilation and strictures
  • If extracolonic and mechanical causes of constipation are ruled out with lab tests and colorectal imaging, then a complete physiologic evaluation may be useful, although the interpretation should be guarded as patient cooperation is critical
    • Eg anal manometry, balloon insertion, defecography and colonic transit studies
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Gastroenterology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Pearl Toh, 26 Nov 2020
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be the mainstay of long-term asthma management — such is the key message of the latest Singapore ACE* Clinical Guidance (ACG) for asthma, released in October 2020.
Audrey Abella, 6 days ago
A pilot telemedicine initiative may be an alternative for facilitating delivery of intravenous iron (IVI) for individuals requiring iron supplementation.