conjunctivitis%20-%20allergic,%20seasonal%20-and-%20perennial
CONJUNCTIVITIS - ALLERGIC, SEASONAL & PERENNIAL

Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Allergic conjunctivitis happens when the direct exposure of the ocular mucosal surfaces to the environment causes an immediate hypersensitivity reaction in which triggering antigens couple to reaginic antibodies (IgE) on the cell surface of mast cells and basophils, leading to the release of histamines that causes capillary dilation and increased permeability and thus conjunctival injection and swelling.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of allergic conjunctivitis in temperate climates. It usually occurs and recurs at a certain period of the year (eg summer).
Perennial allergic conjunctivitis manifests and recurs throughout the year with no seasonal predilection. It is most common in tropical climates.

Conjunctivitis - Allergic, Seasonal & Perennial References

  1. Bielory L. Allergic and immunologic disorders of the eye. Part II: ocular allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000 Dec;106(6):1019-1032. PMID: 11112882
  2. Bielory L. Ocular allergy treatment. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2008 Feb;28(1):189-224. doi: 10.1016/j.iac.2007.12.001. PMID: 18282552
  3. Bielory L. Ocular allergy overview. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2008 Feb;28(1):1-23. doi: 10.1016/j.iac.2007.12.011. PMID: 18282543
  4. Fonacier L, Luchs J, Udell I. Ocular allergies. Curr Allergy Asthma. 2001 Jul;1(4):389-396. PMID: 11892063
  5. Bielory L, Friedlaender MH. Allergic conjunctivitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;28(1):43-58. doi: 10.1016/j.iac.2007.12.005. PMID: 18282545
  6. Schmid KL, Schmid LM. Ocular allergy: causes and therapeutic options. Clin Exp Optom. 2000;83(5):257-270. PMID: 12472429
  7. Yoshida H, Takamura E. The direction of specific efforts with allergic conjunctival diseases in Japan - from the standpoint of ophthalmologists. JMAJ. 2009;52(3):173-177
  8. Takamura E, Uchio E, Ebihara N, et al. Japanese guideline for allergic conjunctival diseases. Allergo Int. 2011 Mar;60(2):191-203. doi: 10.2332/allergolint.11-RAI-0335. PMID: 21636966
  9. Boguniewicz M, Leung DYM. Ocular allergies. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007
  10. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Allergy-%26-Immunology/3/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Allergy-Immunology.xml
  11. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  12. Dana R. Allergic conjunctivitis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/index. May 2012. Accessed 25 May 2012
  13. Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA). Allergic conjunctivitis. http://www.allergy.org.au/patients/allergic-rhinitis-hay-fever-and-sinusitis/allergic-conjunctivitis. Jan 2010. Accessed 16 Jul 2012
  14. Ventocilla M. Allergic conjunctivitis. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com/. Jan 2012. Accessed 06 Jun 2012.
  15. American Optometric Association. Optometric clinical practice guideline. Care of the patient with conjunctivitis. http://www.aoa.org/. 2002. Accessed 16 Jul 2012.
  16. American Academy of Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Conjunctivitis-limited revision. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. 2011
  17. Jacobs DS. Conjunctivitis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/conjunctivitis. 16 Oct 2012. Accessed 14 Feb 2014
  18. American Academy of Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease PPP Panel, Hoskins Center for Quality Eye Care. Conjunctivitis Summary Benchmark – 2013. ONE Network. http://one.aao.org/summary-benchmark-detail/conjunctivitis-summary-benchmark--october-2012. Oct 2013. Accessed 14 Feb 2014
  19. Alfonso SA, Fawley JD, Lu XA. Conjunctivitis. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2015 Sep;42(3):325-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.001.
  20. Takamura E, Uchio E, Ebihara N, et al; Japanese Society of Allergology. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017. Allergol Int. 2017 Apr;66(2):220-229. doi: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.12.004. Accessed 17 May 2017. PMID: 28209324
  21. Fauquert JL, Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz M, Rondon C, et al. Conjunctival allergen provocation test: Guidelines for daily practice. Allergy. 2017 Jan;72(1):43-54. doi: 10.1111/all.12986. PMID: 27430124
  22. Hamrah P. Allergic conjunctivitis: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 16 Aug 2018.
  23. Hamrah P. Allergic conjunctivitis: Management. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 11 Jun 2019.
  24. Varu DM, Rhee MK, Akpek EK, et al. Conjunctivitis preferred practice pattern. Ophthalmology. 2019 Jan;126(1):P94-P169. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.10.020. PMID: 30366797
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