conjunctivitis%20-%20allergic,%20seasonal%20-and-%20perennial
CONJUNCTIVITIS - ALLERGIC, SEASONAL & PERENNIAL

Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Allergic conjunctivitis happens when the direct exposure of the ocular mucosal surfaces to the environment causes an immediate hypersensitivity reaction in which triggering antigens couple to reaginic antibodies (IgE) on the cell surface of mast cells and basophils, leading to the release of histamines that causes capillary dilation and increased permeability and thus conjunctival injection and swelling.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of allergic conjunctivitis in temperate climates. It usually occurs and recurs at a certain period of the year (eg summer).
Perennial allergic conjunctivitis manifests and recurs throughout the year with no seasonal predilection. It is most common in tropical climates.

Conjunctivitis%20-%20allergic,%20seasonal%20-and-%20perennial Management

Follow Up

  • Frequency depends on the severity of the disease, etiology, & treatment
  • Visual acuity should be measured & slit-lamp biomicroscopy should be performed
    • Intraocular pressure measurement & pupillary dilation should be done if corticosteroids have been used in treating patient’s chronic or recurrent conjunctivitis
      • Assesses possible side effect such as cataract & glaucoma
    • Baseline & periodic measurement is advised
  • Patients requiring repeat short-term topical corticosteroid therapy should be informed of its possible complications
  • Refer to a speciliast if w/ 
    • Eye that cannot open or be kept open
    • Marked pain or photophobia
    • History of trauma or foreign body
    • Copious or progressive discharge
    • Asymmetric or nonreactive pupil
    • Ciliary flush
    • Corneal opacity
    • Visual acuity loss
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Pearl Toh, 26 Nov 2020
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be the mainstay of long-term asthma management — such is the key message of the latest Singapore ACE* Clinical Guidance (ACG) for asthma, released in October 2020.
Audrey Abella, 4 days ago
A pilot telemedicine initiative may be an alternative for facilitating delivery of intravenous iron (IVI) for individuals requiring iron supplementation.