conjunctivitis%20-%20allergic,%20seasonal%20-and-%20perennial
CONJUNCTIVITIS - ALLERGIC, SEASONAL & PERENNIAL

Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Allergic conjunctivitis happens when the direct exposure of the ocular mucosal surfaces to the environment causes an immediate hypersensitivity reaction in which triggering antigens couple to reaginic antibodies (IgE) on the cell surface of mast cells and basophils, leading to the release of histamines that causes capillary dilation and increased permeability and thus conjunctival injection and swelling.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of allergic conjunctivitis in temperate climates. It usually occurs and recurs at a certain period of the year (eg summer).
Perennial allergic conjunctivitis manifests and recurs throughout the year with no seasonal predilection. It is most common in tropical climates.

Follow Up

  • Frequency depends on the severity of the disease, etiology, & treatment
  • Visual acuity should be measured & slit-lamp biomicroscopy should be performed
    • Intraocular pressure measurement & pupillary dilation should be done if corticosteroids have been used in treating patient’s chronic or recurrent conjunctivitis
      • Assesses possible side effect such as cataract & glaucoma
    • Baseline & periodic measurement is advised
  • Patients requiring repeat short-term topical corticosteroid therapy should be informed of its possible complications
  • Refer to a speciliast if w/ 
    • Eye that cannot open or be kept open
    • Marked pain or photophobia
    • History of trauma or foreign body
    • Copious or progressive discharge
    • Asymmetric or nonreactive pupil
    • Ciliary flush
    • Corneal opacity
    • Visual acuity loss
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