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CONJUNCTIVITIS - ALLERGIC, SEASONAL & PERENNIAL

Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva.

Allergic conjunctivitis happens when the direct exposure of the ocular mucosal surfaces to the environment causes an immediate hypersensitivity reaction in which triggering antigens couple to reaginic antibodies (IgE) on the cell surface of mast cells and basophils, leading to the release of histamines that causes capillary dilation and increased permeability and thus conjunctival injection and swelling.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of allergic conjunctivitis in temperate climates. It usually occurs and recurs at a certain period of the year (eg summer).
Perennial allergic conjunctivitis manifests and recurs throughout the year with no seasonal predilection. It is most common in tropical climates.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Bacterial or viral conjunctivitis
  • Blepharoconjunctivitis
  • Keratitis sicca/dysfunctional tear syndrome (dry eye)
  • Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis

Other Ocular Allergic Conditions

  • Atopic keratoconjunctivitis
  • Contact lens-associated papillary conjunctivitis
  • Giant papillary conjunctivitis
  • Contact ocular allergy or toxic keratoconjunctivitis
  • Vernal keratoconjunctivitis 
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