Allergic conjunctivitis is the direct exposure of ocular mucosal surfaces to the environment that causes an immediate hypersensitivity reaction in which triggering antigens couple to reaginic antibodies (IgE) on the cell surface of mast cells and basophils, leading to the release of histamines that causes capillary dilation and increased permeability and thus conjunctival injection and swelling.
Nerve endings are also stimulated causing pain and itching.
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form in temperate climates. It usually occurs and recurs at a certain period of the year and subjectively more severe than perennial allergic conjunctivitis.
Perennial allergic conjunctivitis manifests and recurs throughout the year with no seasonal predilection. It is most common in tropical climates.
Fetoscopic laser ablation (FLP) is an effective treatment for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twin pregnancies, but it requires a tertiary neonatal facility and a highly specialized team in performing intervention therapies for the treatment of potential complications, according to a Singapore study.
Serum folate levels during pregnancy correlate with the child’s neurodevelopment at 2 years of age, particularly in terms of language development, a recent study has shown. Folate supplementation may be a valuable nutritional intervention to consider.