Colorectal cancer is a carcinoma arising from the luminal surface of the colon.
It is the 2nd most common cancer in women and third most common cancer in male worldwide. It commonly arises from adenomatous polyps.
It is strongly linked to age with 83% occurring in people ≥60 years old.
Rectal cancer is defined as cancerous lesions located within 12 cm of the anal verge.
KRAS and BRAF mutations were associated with shorter relapse-free survival in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer treated with curative intent, particularly in patients who were also microsatellite instability (MSI)-negative, according to a recent study.
Matching targeted therapy to genetic alterations in the tumour improved response rate and long-term survival in patients with advanced cancer who underwent molecular profiling compared with patients who were unmatched to therapy, highlighting the role of molecular testing in precision medicine, the IMPACT* study shows.
Family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) in a first-degree relative (FDR) appears to confer a higher risk of CRC in younger vs older individuals, a study by the Chinese University of Hong Kong has shown.
High plasma levels of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic and α-linolenic acids and the monounsaturated FA (MUFA) oleic acid are associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, while the reverse is seen for increased synthesis of arachidonic acid (an omega-6 PUFA), according to data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS).
About one-third of patients with peritoneal metastasis experience recurrence within 12 months of undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and treatment with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), with cancer type and receipt of adjuvant treatment potentially affecting the risk of early recurrence, according to a study from Singapore.
Upfront tumour sequencing with a single next-generation sequencing (NGS) test demonstrated improved sensitivity and comparable specificity with the currently used universal screening multitest approach for Lynch syndrome in patients with colorectal cancer, which highlights its role as a potential replacement for universal screening, a recent study found.
A weekly dose escalation of regorafenib was superior to starting with the standard dose of 160 mg/day for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), according to the ReDOS* trial presented at the ASCO GI Cancers Symposium 2018.
The combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab demonstrated strong response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates in patients with DNA mismatch repair-deficient/microsatellite instability-high (dMMR/MSI-H) metastatic or recurrent colorectal cancer (CRC), results from the phase II CheckMate-142* trial show.
Despite guidelines advocating mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency testing in individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC), particularly in young adults, uptake of MMR testing remains low, according to a large study from the US.
Reductions in liver fat and adipose tissue volumes were sustained in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with the addition of the SGLT-2* inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA) and the DPP-4** inhibitor saxagliptin (SAXA) to metformin (MET), compared with a regimen comprising glimepiride (GLIM)+MET, according to the extension period results of a phase IIIb trial.