clostridium%20difficile%20infection
CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTION
Clostridium difficile infection is commonly associated with antibiotic treatment and is one of the most common nosocomial infections.
Symptoms usually start on days 4-9 of antibiotic treatment, but may also occur up to 8-10 weeks after discontinuation of antibiotics.
Discontinuation of antibiotics may be the only measure needed for patients with only mild diarrhea, no fever, no abdominal pain nor a high WBC count.
Cessation of antibiotics allows for reconstitution of the normal colonic microflora and markedly reduces risk of relapse.
  1. Hull MW, Beck PL. Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Can Fam Physician. 2004 Nov;50:1536-1545. PMID: 15597970
  2. Schroeder MS. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar;71(5):921-928. PMID: 15768622
  3. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, et al. The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy. 35th. Hyde Park (VT): Antimicrobial Therapy Inc; 2005.
  4. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Gastroenterology/17/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Gastroenterology.xml
  5. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  6. Gronczewski CA, Katz JP. Clostridium difficile colitis. http://www.emedicine.com/. 2003. Accessed 05 May 2005.
  7. Lee J, Hospenthal DR. Pseudomembranous colitis. http://www.emedicine.com/. Dec 2002. Accessed 05 May 2005.
  8. Debast SB, Bauer MP, Kuijper EJ; Committee. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: update of the treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Mar;20(Suppl 2):1-26. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1469-0691.12418/full. Accessed 25 Feb 2014. PMID: 24118601
  9. DuPont HL. Diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Oct;11(10):1216-1223. http://cghjournal.org/article/S1542-3565%2813%2900413-8/fulltext. Accessed 25 Feb 2014. PMID: 23542332
  10. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
  11. Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ, Binion DG, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr;108(4):478-498. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.4. PMID: 23439232
  12. Avila MB, Avila NP, Dupont AW. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. F1000Res. 2016 Jan;5(F1000 Faculty Rev):118. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7109.1. PMID: 26918176
  13. Steele SR, McCormick J, Melton GB, et al. Practice parameters for the management of Clostridium difficile infection. Dis Colon Rectum. 2015 Jan;58(1):10-24. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000289. PMID: 25489690
  14. Kelly CP, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile in adults: Treatment. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Sep 2016. Accessed 10 Nov 2016.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Gastroenterology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
3 days ago
Children with high dental anxiety are more likely to develop dental diseases, which, in turn, negatively affect the family’s quality of life, a recent study has found.
2 days ago
Exposure to corticosteroids in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) appears to contribute to increased risks of cataract, diabetes and bone fractures, a study has found. Notably, the fracture risk is elevated at low doses, while the risk of adverse events overall is dose-dependent and is reversible.
6 days ago
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), rivaroxaban monotherapy is noninferior to combination treatment with an antiplatelet therapy in terms of cutting the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to data from the AFIRE trial.
3 days ago
Supplementation with oral nano vitamin D appears to moderate disease activity and severity grade of patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), suggests a study, adding that this association is more evident in those achieving a target vitamin D level of 40 ng/mL.