clostridium%20difficile%20infection
CLOSTRIDIOIDES DIFFICILE INFECTION
Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection is commonly associated with antibiotic treatment and is one of the most common nosocomial infections.
Symptoms usually start on days 2-3 of antibiotic treatment, but may also occur up to 8-12 weeks after discontinuation of antibiotics.
Discontinuation of antibiotics may be the only measure needed for patients with only mild diarrhea, no fever, no abdominal pain nor a high WBC count.
Cessation of antibiotics allows for reconstitution of the normal colonic microflora and markedly reduces risk of recurrence.

Clostridioides difficile Infection References

  1. Hull MW, Beck PL. Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Can Fam Physician. 2004 Nov;50:1536-1545. PMID: 15597970
  2. Schroeder MS. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar;71(5):921-928. PMID: 15768622
  3. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, et al. The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy. 35th. Hyde Park (VT): Antimicrobial Therapy Inc; 2005.
  4. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Gastroenterology/17/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Gastroenterology.xml
  5. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  6. Gronczewski CA, Katz JP. Clostridium difficile colitis. http://www.emedicine.com/. 2003. Accessed 05 May 2005.
  7. Lee J, Hospenthal DR. Pseudomembranous colitis. http://www.emedicine.com/. Dec 2002. Accessed 05 May 2005.
  8. Debast SB, Bauer MP, Kuijper EJ; Committee. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: update of the treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Mar;20(Suppl Suppl 2):1-26. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1469-0691.12418/full. Accessed 25 Feb 2014. PMID: 24118601
  9. DuPont HL. Diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Oct;11(10):1216-1223. http://cghjournal.org/article/S1542-3565%2813%2900413-8/fulltext. Accessed 25 Feb 2014. PMID: 23542332
  10. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
  11. Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ, Binion DG, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr;108(4):478-498. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.4. Accessed 13 Aug 2015. PMID: 23439232
  12. Avila MB, Avila NP, Dupont AW. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. F1000Res. 2016 Jan;5(F1000 Faculty Rev):118. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7109.1. PMID: 26918176
  13. Steele SR, McCormick J, Melton GB, et al. Practice parameters for the management of Clostridium difficile infection. Dis Colon Rectum. 2015 Jan;58(1):10-24. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000289. PMID: 25489690
  14. Kelly CP, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile in adults: Treatment. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Sep 2016. Accessed 10 Nov 2016.
  15. Hitchcock M. SHC clinical pathway. Guidelines for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection - 2018 update. Stanford Medicine. http://med.stanford.edu. Sep 2018.
  16. Lamont JT, Kelly CP, Bakken JS. Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection in adults: clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 09 Dec 2020.
  17. McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 19;66(7):e1-e48. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix1085. PMID: 29462280
  18. Michel J, Flores E, Mull N, et al. Translation of a C. difficile treatment clinical pathway into machine-readable clinical decision support artifacts prototyped for electronic health record integration. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov. Nov 2019.
  19. Sartelli M, Di Bella S, McFarland LV, et al. 2019 update of the WSES guidelines for management of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in surgical patients. World J Emerg Surg. 2019;14:8. doi: 10.1186/s13017-019-0228-3. PMID: 30858872
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