Clostridium difficile infection is commonly associated with antibiotic treatment and is one of the most common nosocomial infections.
Symptoms usually start on days 4-9 of antibiotic treatment, but may also occur up to 8-10 weeks after discontinuation of antibiotics.
Discontinuation of antibiotics may be the only measure needed for patients with only mild diarrhea, no fever, no abdominal pain nor a high WBC count.
Cessation of antibiotics allows for reconstitution of the normal colonic microflora and markedly reduces risk of relapse.
Faecal microbiota transplantation combined with vancomycin is superior to vancomycin alone or fidaxomicin alone in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile (rCDI) infections, a recent study has found.
The incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who are receiving treatment with tofacitinib is low and particularly so when compared with C. difficile infection incidence in patients receiving other UC therapies, according to a poster presented at AIBD 2018.
Use of rifaximin as a follow-on medication after successful treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in frail elderly patients appears to halve recurrence rate, according to the results of the RAPID* trial. However, the results do not rule out the possibility of no effect.
Among patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), those with cirrhosis are likely to be readmitted within 30 days, as shown in a recent study. Decompensation and early readmission are associated with increased mortality.
A pseudomembrane-driven faecal microbiota transplantation protocol comprising multiple faecal infusions and concomitant vancomycin proves to be more effective than a single faecal transplant followed by vancomycin for treating severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) refractory to antibiotics, a study has shown.
Use of oral capsules in the delivery of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be equally effective as colonoscopy in terms of preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) over 12 weeks, according to the results of a trial.
Elderly patients with Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection who were given extended-pulsed fidaxomicin were more likely to have sustained clinical cure a month after treatment than those on standard-dose vancomycin, results of the phase 3b/4 EXTEND* trial show.
The risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized patients may be halved by a strategy of administering probiotics within 2 days of antibiotic initiation, according to the results of a systematic review.
Bezlotoxumab, a human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) toxin B, appears to reduce the risk of recurrent C. difficile infection, according to findings from the MODIFY I* and MODIFY II** trials.
Exposure to corticosteroids in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) appears to contribute to increased risks of cataract, diabetes and bone fractures, a study has found. Notably, the fracture risk is elevated at low doses, while the risk of adverse events overall is dose-dependent and is reversible.
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), rivaroxaban monotherapy is noninferior to combination treatment with an antiplatelet therapy in terms of cutting the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to data from the AFIRE trial.
Supplementation with oral nano vitamin D appears to moderate disease activity and severity grade of patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), suggests a study, adding that this association is more evident in those achieving a target vitamin D level of 40 ng/mL.