Clostridium difficile infection is commonly associated with antibiotic treatment and is one of the most common nosocomial infections.
Symptoms usually start on days 4-9 of antibiotic treatment, but may also occur up to 8-10 weeks after discontinuation of antibiotics.
Discontinuation of antibiotics may be the only measure needed for patients with only mild diarrhea, no fever, no abdominal pain nor a high WBC count.
Cessation of antibiotics allows for reconstitution of the normal colonic microflora and markedly reduces risk of relapse.
Use of rifaximin as a follow-on medication after successful treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in frail elderly patients appears to halve recurrence rate, according to the results of the RAPID* trial. However, the results do not rule out the possibility of no effect.
Among patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), those with cirrhosis are likely to be readmitted within 30 days, as shown in a recent study. Decompensation and early readmission are associated with increased mortality.
A pseudomembrane-driven faecal microbiota transplantation protocol comprising multiple faecal infusions and concomitant vancomycin proves to be more effective than a single faecal transplant followed by vancomycin for treating severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) refractory to antibiotics, a study has shown.
Use of oral capsules in the delivery of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be equally effective as colonoscopy in terms of preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) over 12 weeks, according to the results of a trial.
Elderly patients with Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection who were given extended-pulsed fidaxomicin were more likely to have sustained clinical cure a month after treatment than those on standard-dose vancomycin, results of the phase 3b/4 EXTEND* trial show.
The risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized patients may be halved by a strategy of administering probiotics within 2 days of antibiotic initiation, according to the results of a systematic review.
Bezlotoxumab, a human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) toxin B, appears to reduce the risk of recurrent C. difficile infection, according to findings from the MODIFY I* and MODIFY II** trials.
Foecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) done through the lower gastrointestinal (LGI) delivery route appears to be the most effective way for the prevention of recurrence/relapse of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), suggests a study.
Transfer of sterile filtrates, rather than faecal microbiota, from donor stool may be enough to restore normal stool habits and eliminate symptoms in patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), according to a study.
Noninclusion of antibiotics in the management of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis is feasible and fairly safe, with long-term follow-up data from the DIABOLO study showing that such a strategy does not result in increased incidence of complicated or recurrent diverticulitis or sigmoid resections over 2 years.
Consumption of whole-cricket powder appears to promote the growth of the probiotic gut bacterium Bifidobacterium animalis and reduce plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α, according to a recent trial.