chronic%20stable%20angina
CHRONIC STABLE ANGINA
Chronic stable angina is a clinical syndrome characterized by squeezing, heaviness or pressure discomfort in the chest, neck, jaw, shoulder, back, or arms which is usually precipitated by exertion and/or emotional stress and relieved by rest and/or Nitroglycerin.
It is caused by myocardial ischemia that is commonly associated with narrowing of the coronary arteries.
Angina is stable when it is not a new symptom and when there is no deterioration in frequency, duration or severity of episodes.
  1. Abrams J. Chronic stable angina. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun;352(24):2524-2533. PMID: 15958808
  2. Abrams J, Thadani U. Therapy of stable angina pectoris: the uncomplicated patient. Circulation. 2005 Oct;112(15):e255-e259. PMID: 16216965
  3. Daud AM, Ghapar AK, Teh B, et al. Clinical practice guidelines: management of stable angina pectoris. National Heart Association of Malaysia, Academy of Malaysia, and Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2010 Jul:001-78
  4. Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J, et al; American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation. 2012 Dec;126(25):e354-e471. PMID: 23166211
  5. Fox K, Garcia MA, Ardissino D, et al. Guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris: executive summary: The Task Force on the Management of Stable Angina Pectoris of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2006 Jun;27(11):1341-1381. PMID: 16735367
  6. Task Force Members, Montalescot G, Sechtem U, Achenbach S, et al. 2013 ESC guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease: the Task Force on the management of stable coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2013 Oct;34(38):2949-3003. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht296. PMID: 23996286
  7. Fraker TD, Fihn SD, et al. 2007 chronic angina focused update of the ACC/AHA 2002 guidelines for the management of patients with chronic stable angina: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Writing Group to Develop the Focused Update of the 2002 guidelines for the management of patients with chronic stable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Dec;50(23):2264-2274. PMID: 18061078
  8. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Cardiology/7/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Cardiology.xml
  9. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of stable angina. SIGN. http://www.sign.ac.uk/. Feb 2007. Accessed 26 Jan 2010.
  10. Cheshire and Merseyside Cardiac Network, North Wales Cardiology. Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of stable angina. http://mm.wirral.nhs.uk. Nov 2007. Accessed 26 Jan 2010.
  11. Fihn SD, Blankenship JC, Alexander KP, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation. 2014 Nov;130:1749-1767. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000095. PMID: 25070666
  12. Philippine Heart Association CAD Guidelines Writing Committee. 2014 PHA Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with coronary artery disease. Philippine Heart Association web site. http://www.philheart.org/. 27 Nov 2014. Accessed 16 Feb 2015.
  13. Begg A, Cargill R. Management of stable angina: a national clinical guideline. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. 2007 Feb. http://www.sign.ac.uk/.
  14. Levine T, Aroesty JM. Stable ischemic heart disease: indications for revascularization. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Feb 2016.
  15. Patel MR, Calhoon JH, Dehmer GJ, et al. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization in patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.02.001. PMID: 28291663
  16. Dehghan M, Mente A, Zhang X, et al; Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2017 Aug 28:pii: S0140-6736(17)32252-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3. Accessed 07 Sep 2017. PMID: 28864332
  17. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Nov 7:pii: S0735-1097(17)41519-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.006. Accessed 16 Nov 2017. PMID: 29146535
  18. Elwood PC, Morgan G, Woollard M, et al. 'Time is muscle': aspirin taken during acute coronary thrombosis. Br J Cardiol. 2010 Jul;17:185-189. https://bjcardio.co.uk.
  19. Mishra S, Ray S, Dalal JJ, et al. Management standards for stable coronary artery disease in India. Indian Heart J. 2016 Dec;68(Suppl 3):S31–S49. doi: 10.1016/j.ihj.2016.11.320. PMID: 28038722
  20. Ministry of Health Malaysia, Academy of Medicine Malaysia, National Heart Association of Malaysia. Clinical practice guidelines of stable coronary artery disease 2018. 2nd edition. Academy of Medicine of Malaysia website. http://www.acadmed.org.my. Accessed 29 Jan 2019.
  21. Joseph J, Velasco A, Hage FG, et al. Guidelines in review: Comparison of ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable coronary artery disease. J Nucl Cardiol. 2018 Apr;25(2):509-515. doi: 10.1007/s12350-017-1055-0. PMID: 28884447
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Cardiology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
5 days ago
Treatment with nebivolol yields more favourable changes in 24-hour, intradialytic and daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability in patients with intradialytic hypertension, a study has found.
Stephen Padilla, 25 Jul 2019
Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) appear to confer more clinical benefits to elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) than vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (VKAs), suggests a study, adding that this is primarily driven by the lower rates of major bleeding.
25 Jul 2019
Adding a third drug to achieve the target blood pressure (BP) seems to be more effective than increasing the dose of existing dual therapy without any increase in adverse events, suggest the results of a meta-analysis, adding that early use of triple therapy can help improve hypertension control.
05 Aug 2019
Use of alpha blockers in the treatment of hypertension in women is associated with an increased risk of hypotension and related events as compared with other blood pressure-lowering drugs, as reported in a recent study.