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CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by reversible airflow limitation.

The patient usually have chronic cough, sputum production or dyspnea with or without history of risk factors for the disease.

The chronic airflow limitation is caused by a combination of small airways disease and parenchymal destruction.

It is a preventable & treatable disease.

Patient Education

  • It plays an important role in the following:
  • Increasing patient’s knowledge & understanding of the disease
  • Improving skills in symptom recognition, breathing & physical exercise, medication use including proper technique & environmental modification
    • Important to note that adherence to inhaled medications has been associated with reduced risk of death & hospital admission due to COPD exacerbations
    • Measures must be taken to reduce total personal exposure to tobacco smoke, occupational dusts & chemicals & air pollutants
  • Improving attitude toward nutrition & exercise, smoking cessation, quality of life factors & coping skills (eg relaxation techniques, stress management)
  • Improving patient responses to exacerbations
  • Initiating discussions about end-of-life issues including advance directives

Lifestyle Modification

Smoking Cessation

  • The single most effective & cost effective method to reduce the risk of developing COPD & to stop its progression
    • Counseling may be employed to aid patient
    • Pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation eg Nicotine preparations, Bupropion, Nortriptyline & Varenicline may be considered (See Smoking Cessation Disease Management Chart)
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25 Jun 2018
A recent study has enumerated the following features that characterize patients treated in the emergency department (ED) for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD): they commonly arrive by ambulance, have a high admission rate and have significant in-hospital mortality.
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A nationwide study has shown complex use patterns of long-acting beta2‐agonists (LABAs), long‐acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Often, such patterns do not comply with treatment guidelines.
10 Mar 2019
A recent study has found that patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) prefer nasal masks during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) initiation.
Pearl Toh, 16 Feb 2019
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