Treatment Guideline Chart

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by reversible airflow limitation.

The patient usually has chronic cough, sputum production or dyspnea with or without history of risk factors for the disease.

The chronic airflow limitation is caused by a combination of small airways disease and parenchymal destruction.

It is a preventable and treatable disease.

Chronic%20obstructive%20pulmonary%20disease Patient Education

Patient Education

  • It plays an important role in the following:
    • Increasing patient’s knowledge and understanding of the disease
    • Improving skills in symptom recognition, breathing and physical exercise, medication use including proper technique and environmental modification
      • Important to note that adherence to inhaled medications has been associated with reduced risk of death and hospital admission due to COPD exacerbations
      • Measures must be taken to reduce total personal exposure to tobacco smoke, occupational dusts and chemicals and air pollutants
    • Improving attitude toward nutrition and exercise, smoking cessation, quality of life factors and coping skills (eg relaxation techniques, stress management)
    • Improving patient responses to exacerbations
    • Initiating discussions about end-of-life issues including advance directives
  • Protective strategies for basic infection control such as washing hands, wearing of face mask and face shield, and social distancing should be emphasized

Family-focused Health Education and Community Interventions 

  • A multidisciplinary healthcare team may help educate both the patients and their families on the short- and long-term care of COPD, provide action plans and anticipatory care, address psychosocial issues of families living with COPD and sustain the patient's and family's motivation to adhere to COPD management 
  • Community interventions help prevent and control COPD exacerbations by improving the community's awareness of the disease, eg community bulletins and broadcast, information dissemination on environmental factors causing COPD, and formation of online support groups and community-based healthcare teams

Lifestyle Modification

Smoking Cessation

  • The single most effective and cost effective method to reduce the risk of developing COPD and to stop its progression
    • Counseling may be employed to aid patient
    • Pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation eg Nicotine preparations, Bupropion, Nortriptyline and Varenicline may be considered (Please see Smoking Cessation disease management chart for further information)
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