chronic%20lymphocytic%20leukemia
CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignant, chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by proliferation and accumulation of monoclonal B-cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, lymph nodes, liver and spleen.

It is the most common form of adult leukemia in the Western world but rare in Asians.

Exact etiology is unknown but usually associated with genetic aberrations and lesions.

 

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia References

  1. National Comprehensive Cancer Network Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas Panel. NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Non-hodgkin’s lymphomas. Version 1.2016. NCCN website. http://www.nccn.org/. Dec 2015. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.
  2. American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2016. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org. 2016. Accessed 16 May 2016.
  3. Eichhorst B, Robak T, Montserrat E, et al; ESMO Guidelines Committee. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2015 Sep;26(Suppl 5):v78-v84. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdv303. Accessed 25 Apr 2016. PMID: 26314781
  4. Ghia P, Hallek M. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Haematologica. 2014 Jun;99(6):965-972. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2013.096107. PMID: 24881042
  5. Hallek M, Cheson BD, Catovsky D, et al; International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a report from the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia updating the National Cancer Institute-Working Group 1996 guidelines. Blood. 2008 Jun;111(12):5446-5456. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-06-093906. PMID: 18216293
  6. Kawamata N, Moreilhon C, Saitoh T, et al. Genetic differences between Asian and Caucasian chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int J Oncol. 2013 Aug;43(2):561-565. doi:10.3892/ijo.2013.1966. Accessed 12 May 2016. PMID: 23708256
  7. National Cancer Institute. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment - health professional version (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute website. http://www.cancer.gov/. Jan 2016. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.
  8. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. NICE pathways: Leukaemia. NICE. http://pathways.nice.org.uk. 2016. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.
  9. Negrin RS, Rai KR. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. UptoDate website. http://www.uptodate.com/. Apr 2016. Accessed 16 May 2016.
  10. Oscier D, Dearden C, Eren E, et al; British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Guidelines on the diagnosis, investigation and management of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2012 Dec;159(5):541-564. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjh.12067/epdf. PMID: 23057493
  11. Rai KR, Stilgenbauer S. Clinical presentation, pathologic features, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. UptoDate website. http://www.uptodate.com/. Jan 2016. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.
  12. Rai KR, Stilgenbauer S. Overview of the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Jul 2014. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.
  13. Rai KR, Stilgenbauer S. Pathophysiology and genetic features of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Nov 2015. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.
  14. Rai KR, Stilgenbauer S. Selection of initial therapy for symptomatic or advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/. Apr 2016. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.
  15. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Version 4.2020. NCCN. https://www.nccn.org/. 20 Dec 2019. Accessed 15 Nov 2016.
  16. ESMO Guidelines Committee. eUpdate - chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treatment recommendations. ESMO. http://www.esmo.org/. Jun 2017.
  17. Hallek M, Cheson BD, Catovsky D, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis, indications for treatment, response assessment and supportive management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2018 Mar. doi: 10.1182/blood-2017-09-806398. PMID: 29540348
  18. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN Guidelines): chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Version 5.2018. NCCN. https://www.nccn.org/. Mar 2018.
  19. Rai KR, Stilgenbauer S. Evaluating response to treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Apr 2018.
  20. Rai KR, Stilgenbauer S. Selection of initial therapy for symptomatic or advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Apr 2018.
  21. A Mir M. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/. 07 Feb 2020.
  22. Brander D, Islam P, Barrientos JC. Tailored treatment strategies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a rapidly changing era. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2019 Jan;39:487-498. doi: 10.1200/EDBK_238735. PMID: 31099686
  23. Kotiah S. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment protocols. Medscape. https://emedicine.medscape.com/. 01 Jun 2019.
  24. National Cancer Institute. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment (PDQ®) - health professional version. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/. 22 Jan 2020.
  25. Parikh SA. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment algorithm 2018. Blood Cancer J. 2018;8:93. doi: 10.1038/s41408-018-0131-2.
  26. Schuh AH, Parry-Jones N, Appleby N, et al. Guideline for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A British Society for Haematology guideline. Br J Haematol. 2018 Aug;182(3):344-359. doi: 10.1111/bjh.15460. PMID: 30009455
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