Chlamydia is a gram negative obligate intracellular bacteria that causes sexually-transmitted infection.
Chlamydia trachomatis is the primary cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women which may lead to ectopic pregnancy, infertility, or chronic pelvic pain.
Most infected females are asymptomatic.
But some females may experience vaginal discharge, dysuria, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding (postcoital or intermenstrual) or breakthrough bleeding, dyspareunia, conjunctivitis, proctitis and reactive arthritis.
Dr Dariusz P. Olszyna, a senior consultant at the Division of Infectious Diseases, National University Hospital, Singapore, speaks to Roshini Claire Anthony on the importance of early detection to prevent the spread and complications related to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs).
The chlamydia vaccine candidate CTH522 shows therapeutic potential in a phase I trial, being safe and well tolerated when adjuvanted with either CAF01 liposomes or aluminium hydroxide. Both vaccine formulations induce anti-CTH522 IgG seroconversion, although CTH522:CAF01 has a better immunogenicity profile.
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Diabetes is a key risk factor for heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization in patients with or without diabetes. SGLT-2* inhibitors (SGLT-2is) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF (HHF) regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes.