Patients w/ abnormal Pap smear are referred for colonoscopy to screen for presence of cervical cancer.
Colposcopic exam should include inspection of the transformation zone, definition of the extent of the lesion & biopsy of the most abnormal area for tissue diagnosis.
The earliest stages of cervical carcinoma are generally asymptomatic.
Watery vaginal discharge & postcoital bleeding or intermittent spotting may be present & are usually unrecognized by the patient.
Fungal microbiome, also called the mycobiome, appears to be highly variable in patients with well-characterized fungal diseases, a recent study has shown. Moreover, severe asthmatics have the highest fungal loads, along with those receiving steroid and antifungal therapy.