Treatment Guideline Chart
Patients with abnormal Pap smear are referred for colposcopy to screen for presence of cervical cancer.
Colposcopic exam should include inspection of the transformation zone, definition of the extent of the lesion and biopsy of the most abnormal area for tissue diagnosis.
The earliest stages of cervical carcinoma are generally asymptomatic.
Watery vaginal discharge, postcoital or postmenopausal bleeding, intermittent spotting, or abdominal pain may be present and is usually unrecognized by the patient.

Cervical%20cancer%20-%20treatment Signs and Symptoms


  • The 4th most common cancer in women and the leading cause of mortality in women worldwide
  • The 3rd most common cancer among women in Malaysia in 2017; 7th in Hong Kong in 2018; 2nd in the Philippines and Indonesia in 2020
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common cause of cervical cancer

Types of Cervical Carcinoma

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: Most common type
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Other types, eg neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (NECC), adenoma malignum

Signs and Symptoms

  • The earliest stages of cervical carcinoma are generally asymptomatic
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding initially as postcoital bleeding, later becoming profuse
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Lower back pain, pelvic pain
  • Dyspareunia
  • Dysuria
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