Patients w/ abnormal Pap smear are referred for colonoscopy to screen for presence of cervical cancer.
Colposcopic exam should include inspection of the transformation zone, definition of the extent of the lesion & biopsy of the most abnormal area for tissue diagnosis.
The earliest stages of cervical carcinoma are generally asymptomatic.
Watery vaginal discharge & postcoital bleeding or intermittent spotting may be present & are usually unrecognized by the patient.
Thalassaemia becomes a global health problem. Most women with thalassaemia trait can be picked up by universal prenatal screening for thalassaemia using mean corpuscular volume/haemoglobin, followed by haemoglobin pattern with or without DNA analysis.