Cataract is the presence of opacity in the crystalline lens of the eye. It causes painless, progressive blurring of vision.
It is the leading cause of blindness worldwide and the most prevalent ocular disease.
The initiating events that lead to loss of transparency of both the cortical and nuclear lens tissue is the oxidation of the membrane lipids, structural or enzymatic proteins or DNA by peroxidases or free radicals induced by UV light.
Cataract is the presence of opacity in the crystalline lens that causes painless, progressive blurring of vision
Leading cause of blindness worldwide & the most prevalent ocular disease
Mechanism of cataract formation is multifactorial
Chronic & age-related
Signs and Symptoms
Decreased vision & increased problems w/ glare are the hallmark symptoms
Increased nearsightedness called “myopic shift “before opacity of the lens occur
Typically bilateral but often asymmetrical
Initiating events that lead to loss of transparency of both the cortical & nuclear lens tissue is the oxidation of the membrane lipids, structural or enzymatic proteins or DNA by peroxidases or free radicals induced by ultraviolet (UV) light
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - ultraviolet B (UVB) cumulative lifetime exposure
Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, high body mass index
Drugs (eg long-term topical, systemic or inhaled corticosteroids, Phenothiazine, Chlorpromazine)
Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
Gender - females are most likely to have cataract & progress to blindness
Nutrition - low antioxidant levels is associated w/ increased risk of cataract formation
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), rivaroxaban monotherapy is noninferior to combination treatment with an antiplatelet therapy in terms of cutting the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to data from the AFIRE trial.
Many patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in Thailand use anticoagulants, but the uptake of nonvitamin-K oral anticoagulants remains suboptimal despite showing an upward trend, according to data from the COOL-AF registry presented at the European Society of Cardioloy (ESC) Asia Congress 2019 with APSC and AFC.