cardiovascular%20disease%20prevention
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) development is closely related to lifestyle characteristics and associated risk factors.
There is an overwhelming scientific evidence that lifestyle modifications and reduction of risk factors can slow the development of CVD both before and after the occurrence of a CV event.
Primary CVD prevention is aimed at the healthy population, individuals who have several CV risk factors or 1 CV risk factor at a very high level, and individuals whose risk for a CV event is high. Secondary CVD prevention is aimed at individuals with confirmed CVD.

Cardiovascular%20disease%20prevention Diagnosis

Evaluation

  • Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment is essential for primary prevention
  • For patients 20-39 years old, traditional ASCVD risk factors may be assessed at least every 4-6 years 
  • Patients ≥40 years old should be evaluated for the absolute risk of CVD at every routine physician visit
  • Patients 20-39 years old and those between 40-59 years old with low 10-year ASCVD risk (<7.5%) may be assessed for long-term/lifetime risk
Coronary Risk Charts for Determination of Cardiovascular Disease Risk 
  • Age, gender, smoking status, diabetes mellitus (DM), blood pressure, and lipid levels are used to determine the CVD risk
  • Overall CVD risk is more important than the presence or absence of specific risk factors 
  • Risk assessment tools that may be used to estimate CVD risk for patients who have not experienced symptomatic CVD or other atherosclerotic diseases include Framingham Risk Assessment Tool, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 10-year ASCVD risk with coronary artery calcification calculator, System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (SCORE), Reynold’s Risk Score, and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine in individuals with type 2 DM

Risk Stratification

Major Risk Factors

  • Age (men ≥45 years; women ≥55 years)
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Primary hypercholesterolemia [LDL-C 160–189 mg/dL (4.1–4.8 mmol/L); non-HDL-C 190–219 mg/dL (4.9–5.6 mmol/L)] 
  • Increased serum total cholesterol level
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • Diabetes mellitus
    • For individuals with high HDL-C (>60 mg/dL), subtract 1 risk factor from the total
    • History of gestational diabetes in women
  • Hypertension (elevated BP or on antihypertensive medication)
    • History of preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension in women
  • Metabolic syndrome 
  • Family history of premature ASCVD (male 1st-degree relative <55 years; female 1st-degree relative <65 years)
Additional Risk Factors
  • Dyslipidemic triad (hypertriglyceridemia; low HDL-C; and an excess of small, dense LDL-C)
  • Fasting/postprandial hypertriglyceridemia
  • Family history of hyperlipidemia
  • Obesity, abdominal obesity
  • Elevated apo B
  • Elevated LDL particle number
  • Elevated small dense LDL-C
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women
  • History of premature menopause
  • South Asian ancestry 
Nontraditional Risk Factors
  • Elevated lipoprotein (a)
  • Elevated clotting factors
  • Elevated inflammation markers, eg high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Chronic inflammatory conditions, eg HIV, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis
  • Elevated triglyceride-rich remnants
  • Elevated homocysteine levels
  • Apo E4 isoform
  • Elevated uric acid
  • Ankle-brachial index <0.9 

Patients with the following conditions are considered coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalents:

  • Type 2 DM
    • There was insufficient evidence to support type 1 DM as a CHD risk equivalent, although type 1 DM with proteinuria may increase the risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease
  • Patients with other forms of symptomatic atherosclerotic disease, such as peripheral arterial disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and symptomatic carotid artery disease
  • Large-vessel atherosclerotic ischemic stroke
  • Framingham Heart Score risk ≥20%

Note that CVD risk may be higher than indicated in the coronary risk chart in the following:

  • Patients approaching the next age, BP or cholesterol category
  • Sedentary or obese patients
  • Those with family history of premature CHD or stroke in a 1st-degree relative (male <55 years; female <65 years)
  • Patients with low HDL-C or high triglycerides (TG)
  • Patients with DM or impaired glucose tolerance
  • Those already on antihypertensive therapy
  • Patients with evidence of preclinical atherosclerosis

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK CATEGORIES
Risk Category Risk Factors/10-Year Risk
Very High Risk ACC/AHA 2019 No recommendation
ESC/EAS 2019 Patients with any of the following:
  • Documented history of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stable angina, coronary revascularization, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and PAD OR unequivocally documented ASCVD imaging findings (eg significant plaque) that are known to be predictive of clinical events
  • DM with target organ damage or at least 3 major risk factors or early onset of T1DM of long duration (>20 years)
  • Severe CKD (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2)
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia with ASCVD or with another major risk factor
  • ≥10% calculated SCORE for 10-year CVD risk
  • High Risk ACC/AHA 2019 ≥20% 10-year CVD risk
    ESC/EAS 2019 Patients with:
  • Significantly high single risk factor especially total cholesterol >8 mmol/L (>309 mg/dL), LDL-C >4.9 mmol/L (189 mg/dL), BP ≥180/110 mmHg
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia without other major risk factors
  • DM without target organ damage, duration ≥10 years or another additional risk factor
  • Moderate CKD (eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73m2)
  • ≥5% calculated SCORE and <10% 10-year CVD risk
  • Moderate Risk ACC/AHA 2019 No recommendations
    ESC/EAS 2019
  • Patients with <10 years DM age <35 years for those with T1DM and age <50 years for those with T2DM without other risk factors
  • ≥1% calculated SCORE and <5% 10-year CVD risk
  • Intermediate Risk ACC/AHA 2019 7.5% to <20% 10-year CVD risk
    ESC/EAS 2019 No recommendation
    Borderline Risk ACC/AHA 2019 5% to <7.5% 10-year CVD risk
    ESC/EAS 2019 No recommendation
    Low Risk ACC/AHA 2019 <5% 10-year CVD risk
    ESC/EAS 2019 <1% calculated SCORE for 10-year CVD risk
    T1DM = Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Based from:
  • Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Circulation. 2019.
  • Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2020.
  • History

    • Current symptoms of atherosclerosis [eg angina, intermittent claudication, myocardial infarction (MI), TIA, or stroke]
    • Personal history of diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, gout, chronic inflammatory conditions, sexual dysfunction, kidney disease, periodontitis
    • Use of drugs known to raise blood pressure (eg oral contraceptives, NSAIDs, licorice, cocaine, amphetamine, erythropoietin, Ciclosporin, and steroids)
    • Family history of high BP, DM, dyslipidemia, CHD, stroke, renal disease and premature CVD
      • Risk of chronic heart disease increases as number of family members with chronic heart disease increases and the younger the age at which family members develop the disease (before 55 years of age in 1st-degree male relatives or female relatives before 65 years old)
    • Personal, psychosocial, occupational and environmental factors that can influence long-term care (eg depression, anxiety, type D personality, lack of social support, social isolation, and stressful conditions at work)
    • Smoking history and status
    • Alcohol consumption
    • Assess intensity and frequency of physical activity
    • Nutritional habits (eg salt and fat intake)

    Physical Examination

    • Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, ankle-brachial index
    • Height, weight, waist circumference
      • Calculate body mass index (BMI) by dividing patient’s weight (kg) by the square of the height (m2)
    • Comprehensive physical examination
      • Cardiovascular (CV): Heart size, apex beat displacement, signs of heart failure, disease in the carotid, renal and peripheral arteries, coarctation of aorta
      • Lungs: Signs of congestion or lung disease
      • Abdomen: Bruits, enlarged kidneys, liver and other masses
      • Eyes: Optic fundi
      • Central Nervous System (CNS): Evidence of CVD and complications of diabetes (ie neuropathy)
    • Examination for features of secondary hypertension (pheochromocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome)

    Laboratory Tests

    The following should be performed based on patient’s risk for dyslipidemia and diabetes (at least every 5 years or more frequent if risk factors are present)

    • Fasting serum lipoprotein profile [total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C and TG]
      • If patient has not fasted prior to lipid profile: TC and HDL-C can still be measured
    • Fasting blood glucose
    • High-sensitivity C-reactive protein may be considered in intermediate- to high-risk patients with LDL-C levels of <130 mg/dL that needs further stratification
    • The following are not recommended for routine use but may be considered in select patients: Homocysteine level and lipoprotein (a) level, DNA-based tests, any serological or urinary biomarkers

    Imaging

    • Coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurement and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test may help in choosing best treatment strategy for patients
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