candidiasis
CANDIDIASIS
Candida sp are the most common cause of fungal infections.
 It can cause infections that range from benign mucocutaneous illnesses to invasive process that may affect any organ.
 It is considered as normal flora in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, but when there is an imbalance in the ecological niche, they can invade and cause disease.
Most common risk factors include broad-spectrum antibiotic use, central venous catheter use, receipt of parenteral nutrition, receipt of renal placement therapy by patients in ICUs, neutropenia, implantable prosthetic device use and receipt of immunosuppressive agents.
  1. Cornely OA, Bassetti M, Calandra T, et al. ESCMID guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: non-neutropenic adult patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Dec;18(Suppl 7):19-37. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12039. Accessed 10 Sep 2013. PMID: 23137135
  2. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Mar;48(5):503-535. doi: 10.1086/596757. PMID: 19191635
  3. Dismukes WE. Introduction to antifungal drugs. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Apr;30(4):653-657. PMID: 10770726
  4. Henderson HM, Chapman SW. Infections due to fungi, actinomycetes, and nocardia. In: Reese RF, Chapman SW, Penn RL. Reese and Betts’ a practical approach to infectious diseases. 5th ed: Lippincott, William and Wilkins; 2002:592-597
  5. Cohen J, Powderly WG, Berkley SF, et al. Cohen and Powderly: infectious diseases. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2004
  6. Edwards JE. Candida Species. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2005
  7. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Dermatology/12/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Dermatology.xml
  8. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  9. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
  10. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA. Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Disease Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;62(4):e1-e50. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ933. Accessed 15 Feb 2016. PMID: 26679628
  11. Coronado-Castellote L, Jiménez-Soriano Y. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis. J Clin Exp Den. 2013 Dec;5(5):e279-286. doi: 10.4317/jced.51242. PMID: 24455095
  12. Giannini PJ, Shetty KV. Diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2011 Feb;44(1):231-240. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2010.09.010. PMID: 21093632
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