candidiasis%20(pediatric)
CANDIDIASIS (PEDIATRIC)
Candida sp are the most common cause of fungal infections.
It can manifests from benign mucocutaneous illnesses to invasive process that may affect any organ.
It is considered as normal flora in the gastrointestinal & genitourinary tracts, but when there is an imbalance in the ecological niche they can invade & cause disease.
The immune response of the patient is the important determinant of the type of infection caused by Candida.
Most common risk factors include: prematurity, very low birth weight, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics use, use of central venous catheters, receipt of parenteral nutrition, receipt of renal placement therapy by patients in intensive care unit (ICU), neutropenia, use of implantable prosthetic devices and receipt of immunosuppressive agents.

Introduction

  • Candida sp are the most common cause of fungal infections
    • Can cause infections that range from benign mucocutaneous illnesses to invasive process that may affect any organ
    • Considered as normal flora in the gastrointestinal & genitourinary tracts, but when there is an imbalance in the ecological niche they can invade & cause disease
  • The immune response of the patient is the important determinant of the type of infection caused by Candida:
    • Local overgrowth on skin or mucous membranes due to alterations in the normal microbiota characterizes most benign infections. While, those w/ cell-mediated immunity deficiencies have more extensive &/or persistent mucous membrane infections
    • Typically in immunocompromised patients in intensive care unit (ICU) or w/ vascular devices, Candida sp gain access to the bloodstream that results to candidemia
  • After hematogenous spread in patients w/ anatomic abnormalities or devices invasive focal infections most often occur

Risk Factors

  • Prematurity
  • Very low birth weight
  • Broad-spectrum antibiotics use
  • Central venous catheters use
  • Receipt of parenteral nutrition
  • Receipt of renal placement therapy by patients in intensive care unit (ICU)
  • Neutropenia
  • Implantable prosthetic devices use
  • Receipt of immunosuppressive agents
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