candidiasis%20(pediatric)
CANDIDIASIS (PEDIATRIC)
Candida sp are the most common cause of fungal infections.
It can manifests from benign mucocutaneous illnesses to invasive process that may affect any organ.
It is considered as normal flora in the gastrointestinal & genitourinary tracts, but when there is an imbalance in the ecological niche they can invade & cause disease.
The immune response of the patient is the important determinant of the type of infection caused by Candida.
Most common risk factors include: prematurity, very low birth weight, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics use, use of central venous catheters, receipt of parenteral nutrition, receipt of renal placement therapy by patients in intensive care unit (ICU), neutropenia, use of implantable prosthetic devices and receipt of immunosuppressive agents.
  1. Hope WW, Castagnola E, Groll AH, et al.. European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: prevention and management of invasive infections in neonates and children caused by Candida spp.. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Dec;18(7):38-52. doi: 10/1111/1469-0691. Accessed 19 Feb 2014. PMID: 23137136
  2. Kauffman CA, Campbell JR. Candida infections in children: an overview. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/candida-infections-in-children-an-overview. Jan 2014. Accessed 20 Feb 2014
  3. Kauffman CA, Campbell JR. Candidemia in children: clinical features and diagnosis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/candidemia-infections-in-children-an-overview. Jan 2013. Accessed 10 Mar 2014
  4. Pammi M. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Candida infections in neonates. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-Candida-infections-in-neonates. Jan 2014. Accessed 13 Mar 2014
  5. Pammi M. Treatment of Candida infections in neonates. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-Candida-infections-in-neonates. Jan 2014. Accessed 13 Mar 2014
  6. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Disease Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009;48:503-535. http://www.idsociety.org/uploadedFiles/IDSA/Guidelines-Patient_Care/PDF_Library/Candidiasis.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2014
  7. Ericson J, Smith PB, Benjamin DK. Candida. In: Kliegman RM. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc; 2016:1515-1518.e1.
  8. Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the management of candidiasis: 2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;62(4):e1-e50. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/62/4/e1.full.pdf. PMID: 26679628
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