Treatment Guideline Chart
Thermal burns are burns due to external heat sources that raises skin and tissue temperature causing tissue cell death or charring. Flame is the most common type of burn. Inhalation injury is found in 30% of victims of major flame burns.
Chemical burns are due to strong acids, alkalis, detergents or solvents coming into contact with the skin. Tissues are damaged by protein coagulation or liquefaction rather than hyperthermic activity.
Electrical burns are due to electrical current or lightning coming in contact with the body.
First degree burns or superficial burns appears similar to sunburn that is painful, dry, swollen, erythematous without blisters and involves only the epidermis.
Second degree burns or partial-thickness burns has appearance of moist blebs, formation of vesicle and blister; underlying tissue is mottled pink and white with good capillary refill; this involves the entire epidermis and a variable portion of the dermal layer.
Third degree burns or full-thickness burns appears dry, leathery eschar, mixed white waxy, khaki, mahogany and soot stained. It involves the entire epidermis and dermis, leaving no residual epidermis cells, may include fat, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscle and bone.

Burns - Initial Management References

  1. Fenlon S, Nene S. Burns in children. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain. Oxford Univ Press. 2007;7(3):76-80. http://e-safe-anaesthesia.org/.
  2. American Heart Association. First aid. 2005 International consensus conference on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation. 2005 Nov;112(Suppl 3):115-125. http://circ.ahajournals.org/.
  3. Hettiaratchy S, Papini R. Initial management of a major burn: 1-overview. Br Med J. 2004 Jun;328(7455):1555-1557. PMID: 15217876
  4. Antoon AY, Donovan MK. Burn injuries. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 18th. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier Inc; 2007.
  5. Johnson HD. Trauma, burns, and common critical care emergencies. In: Robertson J, Shilkofski N, eds. The Harriet Lane handbook: a manual for pediatric house officers. 17th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby, Elsevier; 2005
  6. MedWorm http://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Dermatology/12/ http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Dermatology-News.xml
  7. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  8. Demling RH, DeSanti L, Orgill DP. Initial management of burn patients. http://www.burnsurgery.org/.
  9. Bruno A, Bentley A, Cavalli M. Clinical practice guideline: fluid resuscitation and management of the burn patient. University of New Mexico Health Science Center. Mar 2004.
  10. Hartford CE. Care of outpatient burns. In: Herndon DN. Total Burn Care. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc; 2012.
  11. Lloyd EC, Rodgers BC, Michener M, Williams MS. Outpatient burns: prevention and care. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Jan;85(1):25-32. http://www.aafp.org/. PMID: 22230304
  12. Work Loss Data Institute. Burns. Work Loss Data Institute. http://www.guideline.gov/. 2011.
  13. Agency for Clinical Innovation Statewide Burn Injury Service, New South Wales Government. Clinical guidelines: burn patient management 4th edition. ACI. https://www.aci.health.nsw.gov.au. 29 Apr 2019.
  14. American Burn Association. Advanced burn life support course: provider manual 2018 update. ABA. http://ameriburn.org. 2018.
  15. Antoon AY. Burn Injuries. In: Kliegman R, ed. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020. 614-623. :614-623.
  16. Carachi P, McCormack JG. Trauma and burns in children. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. 2020 Dec;21(12):634-640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpaic.2020.10.003.
  17. European Burns Association. European practice guidelines for burn care. Version 4-2017. EBA. https://www.euroburn.org/. 2017.
  18. Iftimia N, Ferguson RD, Mujat M, et al. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy/optical coherence tomography imaging for skin burn assessment. Biomed Opt Express. 2013 Apr;4(5):680-695. doi: 10.1364/BOE.4.000680. PMID: 23667785
  19. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. moorLDLS-BI for burn depth assessment. NICE. https://www.nice.gov.uk. 09 Feb 2021.
  20. Sheridan RL. Burn care for children. Pediatr Rev. 2018 Jun;39(6):273-286. doi: 10.1542/pir.2016-0179. PMID: 29858290
  21. Tenenhaus M, Rennekampff HO. Topical agents and dressings for local burn wound care. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. 27 Mar 2020.
Editor's Recommendations
Special Reports