Bronchiolitis is a clinical diagnosis preceding upper respiratory illness and/or rhinorrhea.
Signs of respiratory illness which may include wheezing, retractions, oxygen desaturation, color change, nasal flaring.
There is also presence of apnea especially in premature or low birthweight infants, signs of dehydration and exposure to persons with viral upper respiratory infections.
Symptoms are usually worst on the 3rd-5th day of illness and then improve gradually.
Bronchiolitis is a disease of the lower respiratory tract characterized by acute inflammation & edema of the bronchioles, accompanied by increased mucus production
Usually affects children <2 years of age
Among the leading causes of hospitalization of infants in the United States and Asia
Majority of cases are caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Other etiologic agents include rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza, Mycoplasma
There is no evidence of bacterial etiology for bronchiolitis, but bacterial superinfection may occur
Otitis media is the most common bacterial infection associated w/ bronchiolitis
Epithelial necrosis, mucus hypersecretion, round-cell infiltration, and submucosal inflammation brought about by RSV infection causes bronchiolar narrowing, which leads to mucus plug formation, bronchiolar obstruction, and distal lung tissue overinflation, resistance, and collapse
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms are usually worst on the 3rd-5th day of illness, & then improve gradually
Children whose mothers had taken fish oil supplements during the second half of pregnancy appeared to have better problem-solving skills and attention focus at age 10 vs those whose mothers had consumed folic acid alone or no supplements at all in a study presented at WCPGHAN 2021.