Bronchiolitis is a clinical diagnosis preceding upper respiratory illness and/or rhinorrhea.
Signs of respiratory illness which may include wheezing, retractions, oxygen desaturation, color change, nasal flaring.
There is also presence of apnea especially in premature or low birthweight infants, signs of dehydration and exposure to persons with viral upper respiratory infections.
Symptoms are usually worst on the 3rd-5th day of illness and then improve gradually.
Bronchiolitis in infancy carries a three- to fivefold increased risk of developing respiratory illnesses, including asthma, wheeze, and lower and upper respiratory tract infections in the first 5 years of life, a study has found.
In the management of paediatric bronchiolitis, high-flow oxygen therapy appears to be superior to standard oxygen therapy in terms of rate of escalation of care due to treatment failure, according to the results of a trial.
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A 4-week course of amoxicillin-clavulanate in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) does not improve cough resolution rates compared with a 2-week course, according to a study from Australia. However, the longer course may significantly extend time to first cough exacerbation.