Bronchiolitis is a clinical diagnosis preceding upper respiratory illness and/or rhinorrhea.
Signs of respiratory illness which may include wheezing, retractions, oxygen desaturation, color change, nasal flaring.
There is also presence of apnea especially in premature or low birthweight infants, signs of dehydration and exposure to persons with viral upper respiratory infections.
Symptoms are usually worst on the 3rd-5th day of illness and then improve gradually.
Allowing for an observation period of between 11 to 25 hours is necessary for assessing the risk of delayed desaturation in hospitalised infants with bronchiolitis, according to a study. This should guide the identification of infants who may be immediately and safely discharged from the emergency department (ED).
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a common technique for alleviating respiratory distress in infants with bronchiolitis. Most studies of CPAP have been conducted in an intensive care setting, but a recent trial assessed the feasibility of using CPAP to treat infants with bronchiolitis in a general paediatric ward.
Asthma is a risk factor for bronchiolitis in pregnancy and since recurrent episodes of bronchiolitis are associated with the development of childhood asthma, optimal management of asthma during pregnancy may affect the risk of developing childhood asthma or even its severity.
Adults born very preterm, whether with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), appear to have anatomically smaller airways compared with their counterparts who were born full-term, a recent study suggests.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants did not reduce the odds of mortality or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a recent US study found.
Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with children born to normal-weight mothers, according to data from a review and meta-analysis.
Lactobacilli bacteria appear to be less abundant in the guts of male infants born to asthmatic mothers, a recent study shows. On the other hand, Bacteroidaceae are more abundant in the guts of female infants.