Breast cancer is the presence of malignant breast nodule, mass or abscess.
Most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast. The lump or mass is usually painless, hard & irregular but it can also be tender, soft, rounded or painful.
Other signs & symptoms include breast pain or nipple pain, nipple discharge, nipple retraction and presence of breast skin changes (eg peau d' orange, nipple excoriation, scaling, inflammation, skin tethering, ulceration, abscess).


  • Treatment with high-energy rays or particles that destroy cancer cells
  • Radiation to the breast is strongly recommended after breast-conserving surgery to decrease the chance of recurrence
    • Postmastectomy RT is recommended in T3-T4 tumors and/or >4 positive axillary nodes, considered in 1-3 positive axillary nodes and tumors >5 cm or with pathologic margins
  • Also used to treat cancer that has metastasized to other organs
  • Can be given as external beam radiation or brachytherapy
  • Commonly done after chemotherapy except in patients with negative axillary nodes and tumor with ≤5 cm in size and margins ≥1 mm
  • RT to the chest wall, supraclavicular and infraclavicular areas, and internal mammary nodes is recommended if with positive axillary node involvement
    • RT to the chest wall and internal mammary nodes with or without radiotherapy to the supraclavicular and infraclavicular nodes can be considered in negative axillary nodes and tumor >5 cm or positive margins
    • RT to the chest only in negative axillary nodes and tumor ≤5 cm with close margins of <1 mm

For Stage IIIA (Except T3N1M0), IIIB, IIIC

  • Radiation to the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes is recommended in patients who underwent mastectomy with axillary LN surgery and lumpectomy with axillary LN dissection
  • Internal mammary nodes irradiation is also done if affected
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Tristan Manalac, 06 Oct 2017
In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), combined oral contraceptive (COC) with spironolactone is more effective than metformin in reducing symptoms while showing a similar safety profile, according to a new randomized clinical trial (RCT).