Breast cancer is the presence of malignant breast nodule, mass or abscess.
Most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast. The lump or mass is usually painless, hard & irregular but it can also be tender, soft, rounded or painful.
Other signs & symptoms include breast pain or nipple pain, nipple discharge, nipple retraction and presence of breast skin changes (eg peau d' orange, nipple excoriation, scaling, inflammation, skin tethering, ulceration, abscess).


  • Treatment with high-energy rays or particles that destroy cancer cells
  • Radiation to the breast is strongly recommended after breast-conserving surgery to decrease the chance of recurrence
    • Postmastectomy RT is recommended in T3-T4 tumors and/or >4 positive axillary nodes, considered in 1-3 positive axillary nodes and tumors >5 cm or with pathologic margins
  • Also used to treat cancer that has metastasized to other organs
  • Can be given as external beam radiation or brachytherapy
  • Commonly done after chemotherapy except in patients with negative axillary nodes and tumor with ≤5 cm in size and margins ≥1 mm
  • RT to the chest wall, supraclavicular and infraclavicular areas, and internal mammary nodes is recommended if with positive axillary node involvement
    • RT to the chest wall and internal mammary nodes with or without radiotherapy to the supraclavicular and infraclavicular nodes can be considered in negative axillary nodes and tumor >5 cm or positive margins
    • RT to the chest only in negative axillary nodes and tumor ≤5 cm with close margins of <1 mm

For Stage IIIA (Except T3N1M0), IIIB, IIIC

  • Radiation to the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes is recommended in patients who underwent mastectomy with axillary LN surgery and lumpectomy with axillary LN dissection
  • Internal mammary nodes irradiation is also done if affected
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prevalent disease worldwide. Consequences of HPV infection vary, depending on the infected individuals and the HPV genotype involved. Life-threatening consequences are not uncommon, and cervical cancer is a clear demonstration of the virus’s potency. While the incidence of cervical cancer is heavily concentrated on developing countries,1 the impact of HPV-related diseases on developed countries has not ceased. In the United States alone, HPV infections are the most common sexually transmitted disease with an estimated 5 million new cases being diagnosed in 2000 among young adults, incurring nearly US$3 billion in terms of direct medical costs.2 A multinational study involving 18,498 women showed that cervical HPV prevalence varied greatly geographically, ranging from the low of 1.6% in North Vietnam to the high of 27% in Nigeria. In general, HPV prevalence peaked among young, sexually active women and declined with age. In selected countries, however, a second peak was noted in women older than 55 years.3 The high prevalence of HPV-related diseases incurs a heavy burden on the healthcare systems of developed and developing countries alike, which renders HPV research and prevention a global public health imperative. On an individual level, the afflictions caused by HPV-related diseases go beyond that of physical suffering to affecting the psychological well-being of the infected. This is the focus of our paper.

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Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global problem. Chronic HBV infection is probably the most common maternal infection encountered in Hong Kong, China, and Southeast Asia. In Hong Kong, which is one of the endemic areas, immunisation against HBV was first provided in 1983 to infants born to mothers who were screened positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Immunisation became widespread since November 1988, but HBsAg-positive mothers are still encountered frequently.1