breast%20cancer
BREAST CANCER
Breast cancer is the presence of malignant breast nodule, mass or abscess.
Most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass in the breast. The lump or mass is usually painless, hard & irregular but it can also be tender, soft, rounded or painful.
Other signs & symptoms include breast pain or nipple pain, nipple discharge, nipple retraction and presence of breast skin changes (eg peau d' orange, nipple excoriation, scaling, inflammation, skin tethering, ulceration, abscess).

Monitoring

Stratification for Systemic Therapy

  • Recommended in early breast cancer
  • May guide in patient selection for chemotherapy addition
  • Patients are further stratified based on responsiveness to endocrine therapy, Trastuzumab and risk for disease recurrence

Categories of Endocrine Responsiveness

Highly Endocrine Responsive

  • Majority of tumor cells express high levels of ER and PR

Incompletely Endocrine Responsive

  • Lower-level expression of ER and/or PR, or absence of either ER or PR

Endocrine Non-responsive

  • Total absence of ER and PR expression
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Rachel Soon, 16 Aug 2019

On 8 August, the first town hall held by the Ministry of Health (MOH) with members of the pharmacy profession took place in Putrajaya. Over 500 pharmacists from across the country and from different areas of practice—community and hospital, public and private, academy and industry—converged to fill the auditorium for the chance to engage in direct dialogue with MOH.

2 days ago
Cardiac biomarkers are useful for identifying community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with an elevated risk of early and long-term cardiovascular (CV) events, according to a study.
13 hours ago
Tofogliflozin is safe and effective for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), regardless of insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs, reports a new Japan study.
5 days ago
Pulmonary function has potential predictive value for future increases in arterial stiffness and its progression, as reported in a recent study.