blepharitis
BLEPHARITIS
Blepharitis is an inflammation process affecting the eyelid margins, eyelash follicles or openings of the anteriorly-placed accessory lacrimal glands and the posteriorly-placed Meibomian glands that causes ocular irritation and redness acutely but usually chronically.
It may have periods of exacerbations and remissions.
It usually occurs in middle-aged adults but can also start in childhood.
Can affect vision by disrupting the surface of the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva; may influence tear film composition.

Blepharitis Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • Blepharitis may have periods of exacerbations & remissions
  • Usually occurs in middle-aged adults but can also start in childhood
  • Can affect vision by disrupting the surface of the cornea & the bulbar conjunctiva; may influence tear film composition

Definition

  • An inflammatory process affecting the eyelid margins, eyelash follicles, or openings of the anteriorly-placed accessory lacrimal glands & the posteriorly-placed Meibomian glands that causes ocular irritation & redness acutely but usually chronically

Risk Factors

Associated Conditions

  • Ocular conditions
    • Keratoconjunctivitis sicca may cause alteration in bacteria resistance brought about by the decrease in local lysozyme & immunoglobulin levels
    • Hordeolum/Stye is an acute infection of the oil gland of the eyelid that causes abnormal secretions that block the glands which may secondarily infected
    • Chalazion is a firm non-tender bump in the eyelid caused by granulomatous inflammatory reaction of the Meibomian gland
    • Dry eye may result from abnormal or decreased meibomian gland secretions
    • Contact lens intolerance or discomfort due to alteration in the lipid layer of the tear film 
  • Dermatological diseases
    • Rosacea is associated w/ epithelial basement membrane abnormalities & recurrent corneal epithelial erosions
    • Seborrheic dermatitis has been found in most patients w/ seborrheic blepharitis
  • Demodex folliculorum
    • Recalcitrant blepharitis has responded to treatment directed at Demodex mites eradication 
  • Isotretinoin
    • Oral medication for severe cystic acne
    • Causes an increase colonization of the conjunctiva w/ Staphylococcus aureus & disruption in tear function predisposing to the development of staphylococcal blepharitis
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 6 days ago
For inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, smoking cigarettes or just being exposed to secondhand smoke raises the risk of developing colorectal neoplasia, a study has found.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 2 days ago
Spending too much time sitting cannot be good for the body, and rising to one's feet breaks up such a behaviour and yields small, but meaningful, reductions in certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, according to the results of a meta-analysis.