Bladder cancer is a heterogenous neoplasm that ranges from non-life-threatening, low-grade, superficial papillary lesions to high-grade invasive tumors that often metastasizes at the presentation.

It is the most common cancer involving the urinary system and it is the 11th most commonly diagnosed in the world.

Microscopic or gross painless hematuria is the most common presenting complaint.


Radical Radiotherapy

  • For muscle-invasive bladder cancer, radical radiotherapy is given using a radiosensitiser (eg Mitomycin in combination w/ Fluorouracil or carbogen in combination w/ Nicotinamide)
  • Alternative treatment in patients unfit for radical surgery
  • Preoperative radiotherapy is not recommended to improve survival
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Women with neuropathic bladder (NB) and paediatric lower urinary tract reconstruction (LUTR) are at increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy and caesarean delivery (CD), with those having prolonged labour, prior CD or a history of noncompliance having the worst complications, according to a study.