bladder%20cancer
BLADDER CANCER

Bladder cancer is a heterogenous neoplasm that ranges from non-life-threatening, low-grade, superficial papillary lesions to high-grade invasive tumors that often metastasizes at the presentation.

It is the most common cancer involving the urinary system and it is the 11th most commonly diagnosed in the world.

Microscopic or gross painless hematuria is the most common presenting complaint.

Chemoradiotherapy

  • Alternative treatment in patients unfit for or opposed to radical surgery
  • May consider adjuvant pelvic irradiation for patients w/ pT3/pT4 pN0-2 disease who recently underwent radical cystectomy w/ ileal conduit
  • Intraoperative RT may be considered in patients w/ tumors extending to the abdominal &/or pelvic wall 
  • For muscle-invasive bladder cancer, radical radiotherapy is given using a radiosensitiser (eg Mitomycin + Fluorouracil or Cisplatin plus Fluorouracil or Cisplatin plus Paclitaxel or Cisplatin alone)
    • Low-dose Gemcitabine may also be considered
  • Conventional fractional radiation therapy w/ a radiosensitizer may be used as palliative therapy
    • Recommended regimens include Cisplatin (preferred), taxanes (Docetaxel, Paclitaxel), Fluorouracil, Fluorouracil + Mitomycin, low-dose Gemcitabine, or Capecitabine
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Jairia Dela Cruz, 6 days ago
Use of standard-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appears to confer protection against the risk of endometrial cancer in overweight and obese women, according to a meta-analysis.
Tristan Manalac, 6 days ago
Less than 15 percent of Singaporean adolescents get the recommended 8–10 hours of sleep on a school night, reports a recent study, noting that such short sleep duration is linked to symptoms of depression, overweight or obesity, and poorer self-rated health.
04 Jan 2019
Obstructive sleep apnoea may increase the risk of male-pattern baldness in men with a family history of hair loss, and this association appears to be mediated by low serum transferrin saturation levels related to hypoxia, a study suggests.
6 days ago
Airway type 2 inflammation remains persistent in many asthmatics on inhaled corticosteroids, a new study has shown. These patients tend to be older and have a more severe disease.