bladder%20cancer
BLADDER CANCER

Bladder cancer is a heterogenous neoplasm that ranges from non-life-threatening, low-grade, superficial papillary lesions to high-grade invasive tumors that often metastasizes at the presentation.

It is the most common cancer involving the urinary system and it is the 11th most commonly diagnosed in the world.

Microscopic or gross painless hematuria is the most common presenting complaint.

Introduction

  • Bladder cancer is an uncontrollable growth of cancer cells in the hollow organs of the pelvis which is the bladder
  • Most common cancer involving the urinary system & it is the 11th most commonly diagnosed in the world
    • It is the 6th common cancer in US & 7th in UK
    • It is the 9th most common cancer in men in Malaysia, & 10th most common cancer in men in Singapore
  • The predominant histologic type of bladder cancer is the urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma
  • It is 3-4 times prevalent in men than in women
    • But women present w/ more advanced disease & have worse survival

Signs and Symptoms

  • Microscopic or gross painless hematuria is the most common presenting complaint
  • Urinary frequency from irritation or a reduced bladder capacity can also develop
  • Dysuria & urgency are other complaints
  • Less commonly, a urinary tract infection is the presenting symptom
  • Upper tract obstruction or pain may occur in more advanced tumors

Risk Factors

Risk factors

  • Active & passive tobacco smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer
    • Tobacco smoke contains aromatic amines & polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are renally excreted
  • Occupational exposure to aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons & chlorinated hydrocarbons is the second most important risk factor for bladder cancer
    • Occurs mainly in industrial plants processing paint, dye, metal & petroleum products
  • Increasing age
    • Mean age of diagnosis is 65 years old
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation is connected w/ increased risk
    • There is an increased risk of developing bladder cancer in patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy or a combination
  • Bladder schistosomiasis
    • Well-established relationship between schistosomiasis & urothelial carcinoma of the bladder
  • Genetic predisposition
    • Has shown to influence the incidence of bladder cancer through its impact on the susceptibility to other risk factors
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