bladder%20cancer
BLADDER CANCER

Bladder cancer is a heterogenous neoplasm that ranges from non-life-threatening, low-grade, superficial papillary lesions to high-grade invasive tumors that often metastasizes at the presentation.

It is the most common cancer involving the urinary system and it is the 11th most commonly diagnosed in the world.

Microscopic or gross painless hematuria is the most common presenting complaint.

  1. Babjuk M, Bohle A, Burger M, et al. Guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (Ta, T1 and CIS). European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/. Mar 2015.
  2. Committee for Establishment of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Bladder Cancer, Japanese Urological Association. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for bladder cancer (summary-JUA 2009 edition). Int J Urol. 2010 Feb;17(2):102-124. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2010.02486.x. PMID: 20377834
  3. Graham D, Raghavan D, Haggstrom DE, et al. Overview of the management of bladder cancer in older adults. UptoDate. www.uptodate.com. Nov 2015.
  4. Jimenez JA, Campbell SC, Jones JS. Screening for bladder cancer. UptoDate. www.uptodate.com. Nov 2015.
  5. Lotan Y, Choueiri TK. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer. UptoDate. www.uptodate.com. Nov 2015.
  6. National Cancer Center Singapore. Bladder cancer. NCCS. http://www.nccs.com.sg/. 2015.
  7. National Collaborating Center for Cancer. Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management NICE guideline 2. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. www.nice.org.uk. Feb 2015.
  8. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines on bladder cancer version 2.2015. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 2015.
  9. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines) - Asia consensus statements: bladder cancer. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 2016.
  10. Umbas R, Safriadi F, Mochtar CA, et al. Urologic cancer in Indonesia. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug;45(8):708-712. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyv06. PMID: 26085688
  11. Witjes JA, Comperat E, Cowan NC, et al. Guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org.guidelines/. Mar 2015.
  12. Witjes JA, Comperat E, Cowan NC, et al. Guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/. 2016.
  13. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines on bladder cancer. version 2.2016. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 2016.
  14. Babjuk M, Bohle A, Burger M, et al. Guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/. 2016.
  15. Babjuk M, Boehle A, Burger M, et al. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: update 2016. Eur Urol. 2017 Mar;71(3):447-461. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.05.041. PMID: 27324428
  16. Babjuk M, Burger M, Comperat E, et al. EAU Guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (TaT1 and CIS). European Association of Urology. European Association of Urology. 2017.
  17. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines on bladder cancer. version 4.2018. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 22 May 2018.
  18. Nishiyama H. Asia consensus statement on NCCN clinical practice guideline for bladder cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jan;48(1):3-6. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyx130. PMID: 29145591
  19. Roupret M, Babjuk M, Comperat E, et al. European Association of Urology guidelines on upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: 2017 update. Eur Urol. 2018 Jan;73(1):111-122. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.07.036. PMID: 28867446
  20. Witjes JA, Bruins M, Comperat E, et al. EAU 2018 updated guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://uroweb.org/. 2018.
  21. Witjes JA, Lebret T, Comperat EM, et al. Updated 2016 EAU guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2017 Mar;71(3):462-475. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.06.020. PMID: 27375033
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Jairia Dela Cruz, 6 days ago
Use of standard-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appears to confer protection against the risk of endometrial cancer in overweight and obese women, according to a meta-analysis.
Tristan Manalac, 6 days ago
Less than 15 percent of Singaporean adolescents get the recommended 8–10 hours of sleep on a school night, reports a recent study, noting that such short sleep duration is linked to symptoms of depression, overweight or obesity, and poorer self-rated health.
04 Jan 2019
Obstructive sleep apnoea may increase the risk of male-pattern baldness in men with a family history of hair loss, and this association appears to be mediated by low serum transferrin saturation levels related to hypoxia, a study suggests.
6 days ago
Airway type 2 inflammation remains persistent in many asthmatics on inhaled corticosteroids, a new study has shown. These patients tend to be older and have a more severe disease.