bladder%20cancer
BLADDER CANCER

Bladder cancer is a heterogenous neoplasm that ranges from non-life-threatening, low-grade, superficial papillary lesions to high-grade invasive tumors that often metastasizes at the presentation.

It is the most common cancer involving the urinary system and it is the 11th most commonly diagnosed in the world.

Microscopic or gross painless hematuria is the most common presenting complaint.

Bladder Cancer References

  1. Babjuk M, Bohle A, Burger M, et al. Guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (Ta, T1 and CIS). European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/. Mar 2015.
  2. Committee for Establishment of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Bladder Cancer, Japanese Urological Association. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for bladder cancer (summary-JUA 2009 edition). Int J Urol. 2010 Feb;17(2):102-124. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2010.02486.x. PMID: 20377834
  3. Graham D, Raghavan D, Haggstrom DE, et al. Overview of the management of bladder cancer in older adults. UptoDate. www.uptodate.com. Nov 2015.
  4. Jimenez JA, Campbell SC, Jones JS. Screening for bladder cancer. UptoDate. www.uptodate.com. Nov 2015.
  5. Lotan Y, Choueiri TK. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer. UptoDate. www.uptodate.com. Nov 2015.
  6. National Cancer Center Singapore. Bladder cancer. NCCS. http://www.nccs.com.sg/. 2015.
  7. National Collaborating Center for Cancer. Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management NICE guideline 2. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. www.nice.org.uk. Feb 2015.
  8. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines on bladder cancer version 2.2015. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 2015.
  9. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines) - Asia consensus statements: bladder cancer. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 2016.
  10. Umbas R, Safriadi F, Mochtar CA, et al. Urologic cancer in Indonesia. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug;45(8):708-712. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyv06. PMID: 26085688
  11. Witjes JA, Comperat E, Cowan NC, et al. Guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org.guidelines/. Mar 2015.
  12. Witjes JA, Comperat E, Cowan NC, et al. Guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/. 2016.
  13. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines on bladder cancer. version 2.2016. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 2016.
  14. Babjuk M, Bohle A, Burger M, et al. Guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/. 2016.
  15. Babjuk M, Boehle A, Burger M, et al. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: update 2016. Eur Urol. 2017 Mar;71(3):447-461. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.05.041. PMID: 27324428
  16. Babjuk M, Burger M, Comperat E, et al. EAU Guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (TaT1 and CIS). European Association of Urology. European Association of Urology. 2017.
  17. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines on bladder cancer. version 4.2018. NCCN. www.nccn.org. 22 May 2018.
  18. Nishiyama H. Asia consensus statement on NCCN clinical practice guideline for bladder cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jan;48(1):3-6. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyx130. PMID: 29145591
  19. Roupret M, Babjuk M, Comperat E, et al. European Association of Urology guidelines on upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: 2017 update. Eur Urol. 2018 Jan;73(1):111-122. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.07.036. PMID: 28867446
  20. Witjes JA, Bruins M, Comperat E, et al. EAU 2018 updated guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. European Association of Urology. http://uroweb.org/. 2018.
  21. Witjes JA, Lebret T, Comperat EM, et al. Updated 2016 EAU guidelines on muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2017 Mar;71(3):462-475. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.06.020. PMID: 27375033
  22. American Cancer Society. Bladder cancer surgery. ACS. https://www.cancer.org/. Jan 2019.
  23. American Cancer Society. Key statistics for bladder cancer. ACS. https://www.cancer.org/. Jan 2020.
  24. Babjuk M, Burger M, Comperat E, et al for the European Association of Urology. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. EAU. https://uroweb.org/. 2020.
  25. Cancer Research UK. Bladder cancer statistics. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Mar 2020.
  26. ESMO Guidelines Committee. eUpdate – Bladder Cancer Treatment Recommendations. ESMO. http://www.esmo.org/. 16 Dec 2019.
  27. National Cancer Institute - Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Cancer stat facts: bladder cancer. NCI SEER. https://seer.cancer.gov/. 2020.
  28. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): Bladder cancer. Version 3.2020. NCCN. https://www.nccn.org/. 17 Jan 2020.
  29. Witjes JA, Bruins HM, Cathomas R, et al for the European Association of Urology. Muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. EAU. https://uroweb.org/. 2020.
  30. World Cancer Research Fund. Bladder cancer statistics. WCRF. https://www.wcrf.org/. 2020.
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