bipolar%20disorder
BIPOLAR DISORDER
Bipolar I disorder is primarily defined by manic or mixed episodes that last for at least 7 days, or very severe manic symptoms needing immediate hospital care. The patient also has depressive episodes which may last for at least 2 weeks.
Bipolar II disorder is usually misdiagnosed. It is characterized by occurence of ≥1 major depressive episodes with at least 1 hypomanic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder or cyclothymia is a mild form of bipolar disorder. Patients have  episodes of hypomania alternating with mild depression that lasts for 2 years.
Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients have ≥4 episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania or mixed symptoms within a year.
  1. Bridle C, Palmer S, Bagnall AM, et al. A rapid and systematic review and economic evaluation of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of newer drugs for treatment of mania associated with bipolar affective disorder [executive summary]. Health Technol Assess. 2004 May;8(19):iii-iv, 1-187. PMID: 15147609
  2. American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder [revision]. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Apr;159(4)(Suppl):001-50. PMID: 11958165
  3. Goodwin, GM; Consensus Group of the British Association for Pharmacology. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised second edition-recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jun;23(4):346-388. PMID: 19329543
  4. Griswold KS, Pessar LF. Management of bipolar disorder. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Sep;62(6):1343-53, 1357-8. PMID: 11011863
  5. Grunze H, Vieta E, Goodwin GM, et al; WFSBP Task Force on Treatment Guidelines for Bipolar Disorders. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2009 on the treatment of acute mania. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10(2):85-116. http://www.wfsbp.org. Accessed 21 Jan 2011. PMID: 19347775
  6. Mclntyre RS, Mancini DA, Lin P, et al. Treating bipolar disorder. Evidence-based guidelines for family medicine. Can Fam Physician. 2004 Mar;50:388-394. PMID: 15318676
  7. Keck PE, McElroy SL, Arnold LM. Bipolar disorder. Med Clin North Am. 2001 May;85(3):645-661. PMID: 11349478
  8. Grunze H, Vieta E, Goodwin GM, et al; WFSBP Task Force on Treatment Guidelines for Bipolar Disorders. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depression. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;11(2):81-109. doi: 10.3109/15622970903555881. Accessed 21 Jan 2011. PMID: 20148751
  9. Mitchell PB, Malhi GS, Ball JR. Major advances in bipolar disorder. Med J Aust. 2004 Aug;181(4):207-210. PMID: 15310256
  10. Sachs GS, Printz DJ, Kahn DA, et al. The expert consensus guideline series: medication treatment of bipolar disorder 2000. Postgrad Med. 2000 Apr:1-104. PMID: 10895797
  11. Müller-Oerlinghausen B, Berghöfer A, Bauer M. Bipolar Disorder. Lancet. 2002 Jan;359(9302):241-247. PMID: 11812578
  12. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, O'Donovan, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: consensus and controversies. Bipolar Disord. 2005;7(Suppl 3):005-69. PMID: 15952957
  13. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, O'Donovan C, et al; Guidelines Group, CANMAT. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2007. Bipolar Disord. 2006 Dec;8(6):721-739. PMID: 17156158
  14. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Schaffer A, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009. Bipolar Disord. 2009 May;11(3):225-255. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00672.x. Accessed 24 Jan 2011. PMID: 19419382
  15. Bipolar disorder. In: Sadock BJ, et al. Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009
  16. MedWorm http://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Psychiatry/172/ www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Psychiatry-News.xml
  17. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP). Bipolar disorder: Australian treatment guide for consumers and carers. https://www.ranzcp.org. Aug 2009. Accessed 24 Jan 2011.
  18. National Institute of Mental Health. Bipolar disorder. NIMH. http://nimh.nih.gov. 2009. Accessed 21 Jan 2011.
  19. Stovall J. Bipolar disorder: pharmacotherapy for acute depression. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 27 Sep 2010. Accessed 25 Jan 2011.
  20. Stovall J. Bipolar disorder: epidemiology and diagnosis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 24 Aug 2010. Accessed 25 Jan 2011.
  21. Stovall J. Bipolar disorder: maintenance and treatment. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 23 Aug 2010. Accessed 25 Jan 2011.
  22. Ministry of Health Singapore. MOH clinical practice guideline: bipolar disorder. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. 2011. Accessed 26 Feb 2013.
  23. Thambu M, Jambunathan S, George P, et al. Malaysian consensus statement for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Malaysian Psychiatry Association. http://www.psychiatry-malaysia.org. 2007. Accessed 24 Jan 2011.
  24. Hirschfeld RM. Guideline watch: practice guideline for the treatment of patients w/ bipolar disorder, 2nd ed. Psychiatryonline. http://psychiatryonline.org. 2004. Accessed 24 Jan 2011.
  25. Stovall J. Bipolar disorder: pharmacotherapy for acute mania, mixed states, and hypomania in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 05 Oct 2010. Accessed 25 Jan 2011.
  26. Suppes T, Swann AC, Dennehy EB. Texas implementation of medication algorithms-bipolar disorder: physician’s manual. Aug 2002
  27. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. The management of bipolar disorder in adults, children & adolescents, in primary and secondary care. http://www.nice.org.uk. Jul 2006.
  28. Stovall J. Using Lithium to treat bipolar disorder in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 12 Sep 2010. Accessed 25 Jan 2011.
  29. American Psychiatric Association. Bipolar and related disorders. In: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:123-154.
  30. Grunze H, Vieta E, Goodwin GM, et al. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Apr;14(3):154-219. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2013.770551. PMID: 23480132
  31. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Clinical practice guidelines management of bipolar disorder in adults. Official Portal of MOH Malaysia. http://www.moh.gov.my. 2014 Jul.
  32. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2013. Bipolar Disord. 2013 Feb;15(1):1-44. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12025. PMID: 23237061
  33. Goodwin GM, Haddad PM, Ferrier IN, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2016 Jun;30(6):495-553. doi: 10.1177/0269881116636545. PMID: 26979387
  34. Suppess T, Cosgrove VE. Bipolar disorder in adults: assessment and diagnosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Nov 2016. Accessed 15 May 2017.
  35. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) 2018 guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2018 Mar;20(2):97-170. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12609. PMID: 29536616
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Psychiatry - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
13 Jul 2019
The consumption of red and processed meats does not seem to affect the likelihood of symptom relapse among Crohn’s disease (CD) patients in relapse, reports a recent study.
Pearl Toh, 5 days ago
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from the large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.
13 Jul 2019
Treatment with metformin may improve whole-body and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) in youth who are overweight/obese with type 1 diabetes (T1D), according to a study.
5 days ago
Fluticasone, swallowed from a multidose inhaler, and oral viscous budesonide slurry have comparable efficacies as initial treatment for eosinophilic oesophagitis, a recent study has found.