Bipolar I disorder is primarily defined by manic or mixed episodes that last for at least 7 days, or very severe manic symptoms needing immediate hospital care. The patient also has depressive episodes which may last for at least 2 weeks.
Bipolar II disorder is usually misdiagnosed. It is characterized by occurence of ≥1 major depressive episodes with at least 1 hypomanic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder or cyclothymia is a mild form of bipolar disorder. Patients have episodes of hypomania alternating with mild depression that lasts for 2 years.
Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients have ≥4 episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania or mixed symptoms within a year.
Maintenance treatment with lithium, rather than quetiapine, may induce greater improvements in depression, mania and psychotic symptoms over 12 months in patients treated with a combination of lithium and quetiapine for a first manic episode with psychotic features, according to the results of a trial.
A study suggests that the prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) in adolescents with and without bipolar disorder (BD) is correlated with proxies for depression severity such suicide attempts and hospitalization.
Results of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study show that bipolar disorder (BD) in youth with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with typical BD mood symptoms at an earlier onset, with mixed symptom presentation and additive functional impairments.
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from a large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.