Bipolar I disorder is primarily defined by manic or mixed episodes that last for at least 7 days, or very severe manic symptoms needing immediate hospital care. The patient also has depressive episodes which may last for at least 2 weeks.
Bipolar II disorder is usually misdiagnosed. It is characterized by occurence of ≥1 major depressive episodes with at least 1 hypomanic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder or cyclothymia is a mild form of bipolar disorder. Patients have episodes of hypomania alternating with mild depression that lasts for 2 years.
Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients have ≥4 episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania or mixed symptoms within a year.
There is a high incidence of psychiatric comorbidities among gender nonconforming teenagers, with about two-thirds and one-third experiencing depression and anxiety, respectively, according to a study presented at ENDO 2020.
Binge drinking in Singapore is less prevalent than internationally, and most binge drinkers engage in the practice only now and then, as reported in a recent study. Despite this trend, binge drinking is associated with a myriad of mental health conditions and reduced quality of life.
Mood stabilizers for bipolar disorder are implicated in the risk of stroke, which appears to vary among the different types of drugs, as suggested in a recent study. Carbamazepine carries the highest risk of stroke, followed by valproic acid, whereas lithium and lamotrigine have a null effect.
Individuals with attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or anxiety are at greater risk of developing bipolar disorder, according to a study. Moreover, the risk further increases in those who have received diagnoses of both ADHD and anxiety.
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.