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BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a histopathological diagnosis characterized by epithelial cell & smooth muscle cell proliferation in the transition zone of the prostate leading to a non-malignant enlargement of the gland, which may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including voiding and storage symptoms.
It is commonly called enlarged prostate.
Etiology is unknown but due to its similarity to the embryonic morphogenesis of the prostate has led to the hypothesis that BPH may be the result of "reawakening" in adulthood of embryonic induction processes.

Introduction

  • Histopathological diagnosis characterized by epithelial cell and smooth muscle proliferation in the transition zone of the prostate leading to a non-malignant enlargement of the gland, which may result in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including voiding and storage symptoms
  • Common disease of aging men
  • Two phases where prostate doubles its size:
    • At puberty
    • 25 years old and beyond

Etiology

  • The exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is still not well understood

Signs and Symptoms

  • Dribbling at the end of urination
  • Nocturia
  • Pain after ejaculation or urination
  • Weak or interrupted urine stream
  • Trouble starting a urine stream
  • Urinary frequency
  • Urinary urgency
  • Urinary retention
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urine with unusual smell or color

Risk Factors

  • Age 40 years old and older
  • Family history of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Medical conditions such as obesity, heart and circulatory disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)
  • Lack of physical exercise
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