benign%20prostatic%20hyperplasia
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a histopathological diagnosis characterized by epithelial cell & smooth muscle cell proliferation in the transition zone of the prostate leading to a non-malignant enlargement of the gland, which may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including voiding and storage symptoms.
It is commonly called enlarged prostate.
Etiology is unknown but due to its similarity to the embryonic morphogenesis of the prostate has led to the hypothesis that BPH may be the result of "reawakening" in adulthood of embryonic induction processes.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia References

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  13. Miller MS. Role of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms. Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Feb;47(2):278-283. doi: 10.1345/aph.1R528. PMID: 23386068
  14. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Prostate enlargement: Benign prostatic hyperplasia. NIDDK. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/urologic-disease/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-bph/Pages/facts.aspx.
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  16. Otsuki H, Kosaka T, Nakamura K, et al. β3-Adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron is effective for overactive bladder that is unresponsive to antimuscarinic treatment or is related to benign prostatic hyperplasia in men. Int Urol Nephrol. 2013 Feb;45(1):53-60. doi: 10.1007/s11255-012-0343-5. PMID: 23212147
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  18. Pharmacy Benefits Management Services. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for the treatment of BPH/LUTS and penile rehabilitation: Evidence summary and recommendations. PBM. http://www.pbm.va.gov/PBM/clinicalguidance/clinicalrecommendations/PDE5I_BPH_LUTS_Evidence_Summary_and_Recommendations.pdf. Dec 2014.. Accessed 20 Aug 2015.
  19. Zhang LT, Park JK. Are phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors effective for the management of lower urinary symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia?. World J Nephrol. 2015 Feb;4(1):138-147. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i1.138. PMID: 25664256
  20. University of Maryland Medical Center. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. UMMC. http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia.
  21. Christidis D, McGrath S, Perera M, et al. Minimally invasive surgical therapies for benign prostatic hypertrophy: the rise in minimally invasive surgical therapies. Prostate Int. 2017 Jun;5(2):41-46. doi: 10.1016/j.prnil.2017.01.007. PMID: 28593165
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  30. McNicholas TA, Speakman MJ, Kirby RS. Evaluation and nonsurgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2016. 2463-2503.e8. :2463-2503.e8.
  31. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Lower urinary tract symptoms in men: management. NICE. https://www.nice.org.uk. May 2010. Accessed 26 Jul 2019.
  32. Nickel JC, Aaron L, Barkin J, et al. Canadian urological association guideline on male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (MLUTS/BPH): 2018 update. Can Urol Assoc J. 2018 Oct;12(10):303-312. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.5616. PMID: 30332601
  33. Oelke M, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A, et al. EAU guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms including benign prostatic obstruction. Eur Urol. 2013 Jul;64(1):118-140. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.03.004. PMID: 23541338
  34. Singapore Urological Association Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guidelines Committee 2015. Singapore Urological Association clinical guidelines for male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia. Singapore Med J. 2017 Aug;58(8):473-480. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2017082. PMID: 28848988
  35. Welliver C, McVary KT. Minimally invasive and endoscopic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2016. 2504-2534.e11. :2504-2534.e11.
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