Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a histopathological diagnosis characterized by epithelial cell & smooth muscle cell proliferation in the transition zone of the prostate leading to a non-malignant enlargement of the gland, which may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including voiding and storage symptoms.
It is commonly called enlarged prostate.
Etiology is unknown but due to its similarity to the embryonic morphogenesis of the prostate has led to the hypothesis that BPH may be the result of "reawakening" in adulthood of embryonic induction processes.
Patients on watchful waiting should be assessed at 6 months and then annually, provided that there are no absolute indications for surgery and symptoms do not deteriorate
Patients on pharmacological therapy should be assessed to determine response to treatment and safety
Patients taking alpha blockers, anticholinergics, beta-3 adrenergic agonist, PDE5 inhibitors or combination therapy should be assessed at 4-6 weeks after drug initiation and then every 6-12 months thereafter
Patients taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors should be assessed at 3-6 months after drug initiation and then every 6-12 months thereafter
Patients on 5-alpha reductase inhibitors should be monitored with annual DRE and PSA
Patients who underwent surgical therapy should be assessed 4-6 weeks after catheter removal to evaluate for treatment response and adverse events
No further reassessment is necessary in patients without adverse events and with symptomatic relief
Diabetes is a key risk factor for heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization in patients with or without diabetes. SGLT-2* inhibitors (SGLT-2is) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF (HHF) regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes.