Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a histopathological diagnosis characterized by epithelial cell & smooth muscle cell proliferation in the transition zone of the prostate leading to a non-malignant enlargement of the gland, which may result in lower urinary tract symptoms, including voiding and storage symptoms.
It is commonly called enlarged prostate.
Etiology is unknown but due to its similarity to the embryonic morphogenesis of the prostate has led to the hypothesis that BPH may be the result of "reawakening" in adulthood of embryonic induction processes.
Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) appears to be a safe treatment modality in the management of paediatric cystine stones, yielding complete stone clearance and allowing repeat performance in recurrences, according to a retrospective study.
Neither high-dose nor low-dose repletion of vitamin D affects urinary calcium excretion or the super saturation of calcium salts in known stone formers, according to a study, suggesting that higher-dosing regimen for superior repletion may be the optimal treatment protocol in vitamin D-deficient patients.
Blood pressure (BP) appears to have a direct association with kidney stone disease in children, with greater BP values reflecting abnormalities in 24-hour urine oxalate, uric acid, sodium values, but not urine calcium, a study finds.