asthma
ASTHMA
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in the lungs of children and adults.
The patient usually complains of shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing with wheezing.
Goals of treatment are effective symptom control with minimal or no exacerbations, minimal or no nocturnal and daytime symptoms, no limitations on activities, minimal or no need for reliever treatment, and minimal adverse effects of medication.

Asthma Treatment

Principles of Therapy

Management Plans for Long-term Asthma Control

  • Effective symptom control with minimal or no exacerbations
  • Minimal or no daytime and nocturnal symptoms
  • No limitations on activities, including exercise
  • Minimal or no need for reliever treatment
  • No emergency visits
  • Normal or near normal pulmonary function
  • Minimal adverse effects of medication

Therapeutic Strategies

  • Depends on a control-based approach
  • Treatment is continuously adjusted depending on patient’s response to therapy
  • Involves a cycle of assessment, treatment and review of patient response
  • Other strategies used include sputum-guided treatment and fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide

Managing Asthma Exacerbations

  • Beginning therapy at home avoids delay in treatment along with giving the patient a sense of control over their asthma
  • Degree of therapy administered at home will depend on the healthcare provider and the patient’s experience, availability of medicines and emergency care
  • Home PEF measurements may be part of the home management strategy
    • Degree of symptoms is generally a more sensitive predictor of early stages of asthma attack than PEF
  • If patient’s asthma continues to deteriorate or suddenly worsens, consider transferring to an acute care facility

Initial Treatment of Asthma

  • After diagnosis of asthma is made, it is recommended to start corticosteroid (inhaled, low dose) as soon as possible for better outcomes
  • Depends on patient's presenting symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and treatment preference

Recommended Options for Initial Treatment
Presenting Symptoms Children 6-11 years Adults and Adolescents
  • Symptoms occur <2x/month or not frequent
  • No risk factors for exacerbations
  • As-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)
  • Other options: Corticosteroid (inhaled) whenever beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) is taken separately or in combination
  • As-needed corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus Formoterol
  • Other options: Corticosteroid (inhaled) whenever beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) is taken separately or in combination
  • Presence of asthma symptoms ≥2x/month but <1x/day
  • Needs reliever medications
  • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) or
  • Other options: Daily leukotriene modifier or corticosteroids (inhaled) whenever beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) is taken separately or in combination
  • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) or
  • As-needed corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus Formoterol
  • Other options: Daily leukotriene modifier or corticosteroids (inhaled) whenever beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) is taken separately or in combination
  • Presence of troublesome asthma symptoms most days or waking due to symptoms ≥1x/week
  • Presence of risk factors for exacerbation
  • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting) with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) or
  • Corticosteroid (inhaled, medium-dose) with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)
  • Other options: Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) with daily leukotriene modifier and as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)
  • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting) as maintenance and reliever therapy with corticosteroid (inhaled) plus Formoterol or
  • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting) as maintenance only with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting) or
  • Corticosteroid (inhaled, medium-dose) with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)
  • Presence of severely uncontrolled asthma at initial presentation
  • Presence of acute exacerbation
  • Corticosteroids (inhaled, medium dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting) with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)
  • Corticosteroids (oral) short course may be needed
  • Other options: Daily corticosteroids (inhaled, high-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting) or add-on Tiotropium or leukotriene modifier, with as-needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)
  • Corticosteroids (inhaled, high-dose) or
  • Corticosteroids (inhaled, medium dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting)
  • Corticosteroids (oral) short course may be needed
  • Modified from: Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: Updated 2020.

    Management Plans for Long-Term Asthma

    Recommended Medications Based on Level of Control
    Treatment Steps Daily Controller Medications
      Children 6-11 years
    Adults and Adolescents ≥12 years
    Step 1
    • No daily medication required
    Other controller options:
    • Daily corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose)
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) if taking beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)1

    Reliever

    • As needed beta2-agonist (short-acting)



    • No daily medication required
    Preferred controller
    • As needed corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus Formoterol1
    Other controller options:
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) if taking beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)1,2
    Preferred reliever
    • As-needed corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus Formoterol1
    Other reliever option
    • As needed beta2-agonist (short-acting)
    Step 2

    Preferred controller

    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose)
    Other controller options:
    • Daily leukotriene modifier
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) if taking beta2-agonist (short-acting)1
    Reliever
    • As needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)
    Preferred controller (any of the following):
    • Daily corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose)
    • As-needed corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus Formoterol1
    Other controller options (any of the following):
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) if taking beta2-agonist (short-acting)2
    • Leukotriene modifier
    Preferred reliever and other reliever option same as Step 1
    Step 3

    Preferred controller

    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting)
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, medium dose)
    Other controller options
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus leukotriene modifier 
    Reliever
    • As needed beta2-agonist (inhaled, short-acting)3
    Preferred controller
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting)
    Other controller options (any of the following):
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, medium-dose)
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, low-dose) plus leukotriene modifier
    • House dust mite sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)5
    Preferred reliever and other reliever option same as Step 14
    Step 4 Preferred controller:
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, medium dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting)6

    Other controller options (any of the following:

    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, high-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting)
    • Add-on Tiotropium bromide7
    • Add-on leukotriene modifier
    Reliever
    • As needed beta2-agonist (short-acting)
    Preferred controller
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, medium-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting)
    Other controller options (any of the following):
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, high-dose)
    • Add-on Tiotropium bromide7
    • Add-on leukotriene modifier
    • House dust mite SLIT5
    Preferred reliever and other reliever option same as Step 14
    Step 5

    Preferred controller

    • Refer for phenotypic assessment with or without add-on therapy eg anti-IgE
    Other controller options
    • Add-on anti-IL5 (SC Mepolizumab8)
    • Add-on corticosteroid (oral, low-dose) but side effects should be considered

    Reliever

    • As needed beta2-agonist (short-acting)

    Preferred controller
    • Corticosteroid (inhaled, high-dose) plus beta2-agonist (inhaled, long-acting)3
    • Refer for phenotypic assessment with or without any of the following:

    • Tiotropium bromide7
    • Anti-IgE (SC Omalizumab8)
    • Anti-IL5 (SC Mepolizumab8, IV Reslizumab9)
    • Anti-IL5 receptor (SC Benralizumab10)
    • Anti-IL4α receptor (SC Dupilumab10)

     

    Other controller options:
    • Add-on corticosteroid (oral, low-dose) but side effects should be considered
    Preferred reliever and other reliever option same as Step 14
    Modified from: Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: Updated 2020.
    1Used as off-label therapy.
    2Low-dose inhaled corticosteroids may be used separately or in combination with short-acting inhaled beta2-agonists.
    3Short-acting inhaled beta2-agonists should be used as required to relieve symptoms. Other options for reliever medications include anticholinergic (inhaled), beta2-agonists (oral, short-acting), or Theophylline (≥12 years old).
    4For patients previously given low-dose Budesonide/Formoterol or low-dose Beclomethasone dipropionate/Formoterol combination as maintenance and reliever regimen.
    5May be considered in sensitized patients ≥12 years of age with allergic rhinitis and FEV1 >70% predicted.
    6Expert referral is recommended for patients 6-11 years old with disease progression despite good adherence and correct technique.
    7Tiotropium by mist inhaler is only to be given to patients ≥6 years of age with a history of exacerbations.
    8Contraindicated in patients <6 years of age.
    9Contraindicated in patients <18 years of age.
    10Contraindicated in patients <12 years of age.

    Stepwise Therapy Based on Control for Adults and Children ≥6 Years

    For stepwise therapy of children ≤5 years, please see Asthma disease management chart in the latest edition of MIMS Pediatrics for further information
    Step 1 - Use of as-needed controller

    • Medications on an “as necessary” basis are given
    • Reserved for patients with controlled asthma (<2x/month occurrence of symptoms, absent exacerbation risk factors)
    • Patient adherence to medication should be considered when prescribing corticosteroids

    Step 2 - Use of daily or as-needed controller

    • For patients who require controller medications everyday in order to maintain control of their asthma
    • May be used as initial therapy for treatment-naive patients with persistent symptoms
    • Use of daily low-dose inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting beta2-agonist as initial maintenance controller treatment is an option for patients ≥12 years given controller medications for the first time
    • Daily inhaled corticosteroids or as-needed inhaled corticosteroids plus Formoterol is a treatment option for patients with purely seasonal allergic asthma

    Step 3 - Use of daily controller and reliever, plus as-needed reliever

    • For patients who require controller medications everyday in order to maintain control of their asthma
    • If symptoms are not controlled by step 3 medications, patient may be referred to a specialist for further diagnostic evaluation
    • For children, increasing the dose of the corticosteroid from low to medium is preferred than adding a long-acting beta2-agonist
    • Addition of house dust mite SLIT may also be considered in patients ≥12 years of age sensitized to house dust mite with allergic rhinitis and FEV1 >70% predicted

    Step 4 -Daily controller and reliever therapy, plus as-needed reliever treatment continued

    • Therapy usually requires multiple daily controller medications
    • Treatment choice will depend upon what was previously used in step 3
    • Consider expert referral if increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroids fails or if symptom control remains poor and/or flare-ups persist
    • Addition of house dust mite SLIT may also be considered in patients ≥12 years of age sensitized to house dust mite with allergic rhinitis and FEV1 >70% predicted
    • Addition of oral leukotriene modifiers or Tiotropium for patients ≥6 years old with history of exacerbations, or increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroids given with long-acting inhaled beta2-agonist may be considered if symptoms are still not controlled in Step 3
      • For patients being considered for high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, advise should be given about the increased risk for side effects
    • If symptoms are not controlled by step 3 medications, patient may be referred to a specialist for further diagnostic evaluation

    Step 5 - Add-on treatment and expert referral

    • For patients with persistent symptoms or exacerbations despite optimization of existing therapy, correct inhaler technique and good compliance
    • Oral corticosteroids may be added to other controller medications
      • May be effective in reducing the symptoms especially in some adults with severe asthma
      • Associated with severe side effects, hence, should only be given to patients with uncontrolled symptoms and/or frequent exacerbations despite step 4 medications
    • Addition of Tiotropium or a monoclonal antibody, or Azithromycin may be considered if symptoms are still not controlled
      •  Tiotropium via mist inhaler may be considered for patients with history of exacerbations despite combination therapy in Step 3
      • Add-on anti-IgE (Omalizumab) may be considered for asthma patients aged ≥6 years old with allergic component when control is not achieved despite combination of other controllers
      • Add-on anti-IL5 (Mepolizumab, Reslizumab) and anti-IL5 receptor (Benralizumab) may be considered for patients with severe uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma despite adherence to step 4 regimen
      • Add-on anti-IL4α receptor (Dupilumab) may be considered in patients aged ≥12 years old with severe type 2 asthma or those in need of oral corticosteroid maintenance therapy
      • Add-on Azithromycin may be considered for eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma patients with persistent symptomatic asthma despite reduction of exacerbations and improved quality of life with moderate- to high-dose inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta2-agonist combination therapy
      • Add-on low-dose oral corticosteroids may only be used on patients with severe asthma if with poor symptom control and/or frequent exacerbations despite good inhaler technique and adherence to step 4 regimen, and after other contributory factors and add-on treatments have been excluded
    •  If symptoms are not controlled by step 4 medications, patient should be referred to a specialist for further diagnostic evaluation including assessment of phenotype and additional treatment
    • Treatment may be reassessed based on the patient’s eosinophilia seen during sputum exam
      • May be applied if with previous history of high-dose inhaled corticosteroid or inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting beta2-agonist therapy

    Maintaining Control of Asthma

    • Step-wise approach to therapy is the advancement to the next step of therapy if control is not reached or obtained with the current treatment
    • Treatment should be individualized based on the availability of antiasthmatic medications, resources of healthcare system, individual patient circumstances and cost

    Step Down

    • Once control is achieved and maintained and has stable lung function for ≥3 months, gradual step-wise reduction in treatment may be attempted
    • Not applicable for patients at risk of exacerbations or persistent airflow limitation
    • Patients currently on Step 2:
      • Inhaled low-dose corticosteroids may be reduced to once-daily dosing
      • May switch to as-needed low-dose inhaled corticosteroid-Formoterol
      • May switch to inhaled corticosteroids whenever short-acting beta2-agonist is taken
      • Discontinuation of inhaled corticosteroid therapy is not advised
    • Patients currently on Step 3:
      • Shift to once-daily dosing of low-dose inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta2-agonist combination
      • Shift to once-daily dosing of inhaled corticosteroid-Formoterol maintenance dose and continue as-needed low-dose inhaled corticosteroid-Formoterol reliever
      • Reduce moderate-high dose inhaled corticosteroid dose by 50%
      • Addition of leukotriene modifiers may be considered when stepping down inhaled corticosteroids dose
    • Patients currently on Step 4:
      • For patients on moderate-high dose inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta2-agonist combination maintenance regimen: May reduce dose of inhaled corticosteroids by 50%
      • Reduce inhaled corticosteroid-Formoterol therapy from medium-dose to low-dose then continue as-needed low-dose corticosteroid-Formoterol reliever regimen
      • Reduce high-dose inhaled corticosteroids by 50% and continue 2nd controller
    • Patients currently on Step 5:
      • Continue high-dose inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta2-agonist combination
      • Reduce dose of oral corticosteroids
        • May use sputum-guided approach
        • May switch to alternate-day treatment or replace with inhaled forms
      • Patients on high-dose inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta2-agonist combination with other add-on agents should be referred for expert advise

    Step Up

    • Consider step-up if control is not maintained (review patient medication techniques, compliance and non-pharmacological control)
    • Sustained step-up of 2-3 months duration may be considered in patients who are not responding to initial treatment regimen despite good treatment adherence and removal of modifiable risk factors
    • Short-term step up of 1-2 weeks involved increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid for 1-2 weeks for special situations such as in the presence of viral infections or seasonal allergens
    • Day-to-day adjustment of as-needed inhaled corticosteroid-Formoterol doses based on symptoms should be considered in patients given Budesonide-Formoterol or Beclometasone-Formoterol combination as maintenance or reliever therapy

    Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    • Reliever medication should be given prior to exercise or to relieve post-exercise symptoms
    • Treatment is reserved for patients with controlled asthma who develop exercise-induced symptoms or to those in whom exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the only symptom

    Controller Medications

    Preferred Therapy

    • Corticosteroids (Inhaled)
      • These are the most effective anti-inflammatory medications used for asthma and are the preferred controller medications for patients with persistent asthma of all levels of severity
      • Discontinuation is followed by deterioration of control within weeks to months in some patients
      • To minimize side effects, upon achievement of control, corticosteroids should be titrated carefully to lowest effective dose to maintain control
      • Combination with Formoterol as initial treatment is preferred over daily inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy due to issues with treatment adherence 
      • In patients taking short-acting beta2-agonists, inhaled low-dose corticosteroid therapy may be given without Formoterol, taking into account patient's history of treatment adherence
      • Addition of long-acting inhaled beta2-agonist is preferred when daily low-dose inhaled corticosteroid fails
        • Improves lung function and symptoms, reduces exacerbations, decreases need of short-acting beta2-agonists, achieves faster clinical control of asthma, and may also be used to prevent exercise-induced asthma

    Alternative or Add-On Therapy

    • Anticholinergic (Inhaled)
      • Eg Tiotropium bromide, Ipratropium bromide 
      • Considered alternative to short-acting inhaled beta2-agonists because they may have a slower onset of action and/or higher risk for side effects
      • Have an additive effect when nebulized together with a short-acting beta2-agonists for exacerbations of asthma
      • Considered in patients who experience adverse effects (eg tachycardia, arrhythmia, tremor) from short-acting beta2-agonists
      • May help improve lung function and decrease interval to next asthma exacerbation
      • Ipratropium bromide may only be considered for exacerbations and not for long term management of asthmatic children
    • Azithromycin
      • May be considered as an alternative add-on off-label therapy for uncontrolled or severe asthma
      • Sputum exam for atypical mycobacteria should be conducted prior to therapy initiation
    • Beta2-Agonists (Inhaled, Long-acting)
      • Has no effect on airway inflammation, hence not used as a monotherapy
      • Most efficacious when given together with inhaled corticosteroids
        • Rapid clinical control of asthma is achieved than when inhaled glucocorticosteroids are given alone
        • Studies have shown increased mortality risk when given alone; should not be used as a substitute for corticosteroids
        • Causes improved symptom scores, decreased nocturnal asthma symptoms, improved lung function, decreased use of short-acting beta2-agonists, and reduced number of exacerbations
    • Beta2-Agonist (Oral, Long-acting)
      • May be considered as an alternative add-on therapy and should always be given with inhaled corticosteroids
      • Only used on rare occasions when more bronchodilation is needed
      • Less effective than inhaled beta2-agonists and poses increased risk of side effects
    • Corticosteroids (Oral)
      • Long-term use (>2 week) may be required for severely uncontrolled asthma
      • Long-term use should be used at the lowest possible dose
    • Cromones (Inhaled)
      • Limited use in long-term treatment of asthma
      • May be used for patients with mild persistent asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
      • Weak anti-inflammatory effect, less effective than low-dose inhaled corticosteroids
    • Leukotriene Modifiers (Oral)
      • May be used as an alternative for adult patients with mild persistent and Aspirin-sensitive asthma who are not able to tolerate inhaled corticosteroids or those who respond well to leukotriene modifiers
      • When used as add-on therapy, may reduce the required dose of inhaled corticosteroid for patients with moderate to severe symptoms
        • When used as monotherapy for control of asthma, leukotriene modifiers are less effective than low-dose inhaled corticosteroids
    • Monoclonal Antibodies (Benralizumab, Dupilumab, Mepolizumab, Omalizumab, Reslizumab)
      • Reduces asthma symptoms and exacerbations, and the need for rescue medications
      • Omalizumab is indicated for moderate to severe asthma with allergic component not controlled by inhaled corticosteroids
      • SC Mepolizumab, SC Dupilumab, SC Benralizumab, and IV Reslizumab may be considered for severe eosinophilic asthma not controlled by inhaled corticosteroids
        • Use of Benralizumab and Dupilumab are contraindicated in patients <12 years of age; Mepolizumab in patients <6 years of age; Reslizumab in patients <18 years of age
    • Theophylline (Oral, Extended-release)
      • Bronchodilator, which at low dose, has anti-inflammatory effects but with known adverse effects thus not recommended for routine use
      • Monitoring of serum level is needed

    Reliever Medications

    Preferred Therapy

    • Corticosteroids (Inhaled) with Formoterol
      • Combination of steroid with Formoterol is preferred for patients previously given Budesonide-Formoterol or Beclometasone
      • Formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy
      • Reduces risk for severe exacerbation in adults and adolescents with mild asthma compared to short-acting beta2-agonist monotherapy

    Alternative Therapy

    • Beta2-agonists (Inhaled, Short-acting) 
      • Treatment option for relief of bronchoconstriction during acute episodes of asthma and are useful for pretreatment prior to exercise, to be used concomitantly with inhaled corticosteroids
      • Reliever-only initial treatment ie as-needed short-acting inhaled beta2-agonist is no longer recommended due to accumulated reports of increased risk of exacerbations and lower lung function with short-acting inhaled beta2-agonist monotherapy
      • Used only when necessary; increased use indicates that management should be re-assessed
      • Concomitant use with corticosteroid is recommended with every intake of a short-acting inhaled beta2-agonist to prevent side effects of short-acting inhaled beta2-agonist monotherapy
    • Beta2-agonists (Oral, Short-acting) 
      • Alternative to short-acting inhaled beta2-agonist but slower onset of action and higher risk for side effects
      • More side effects than inhalation route

    Allergen-specific Immunotherapy

    • Treatment option after strict avoidance of triggers and medical intervention have failed
    • May be given as subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) or sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) 
      • SLIT may be considered in adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis whose triggers include house dust mites whose exacerbations are not relieved by inhaled corticosteroids and with FEV1 of >70% predicted 
      • Life-threatening anaphylactic reactions have been reported with SCIT use
      • Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been associated with mild oral and GI symptoms
    • May reduce symptoms, medication use, improve allergen-specific and non-specific airway hyperresponsiveness and can possibly prevent asthma development in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
    • Benefits must be weighed against adverse effects and inconvenience of length of therapy

    Bronchial Thermoplasty

    • Treatment option for patients with severe asthma unresponsive to Step 5 of the recommended medications for asthma control and even with specialist referral
    • A procedure that utilizes radiofrequency pulse during bronchoscopies to reduce bronchial smooth muscle mass thereby decreasing the capacity for bronchoconstriction

    Difficult-to-treat Asthma

    • Defined as asthma with persistent symptoms and/or exacerbations despite adherence to high-dose asthma regimens (eg Step 4-5 of the management plan for long-term asthma, high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in adults or medium-dose inhaled corticosteroids in children with a long-acting inhaled beta2-agonist or leukotriene modifier, continuous/frequent therapy with oral corticosteroids)
    • Risk factors include: Incorrect inhaler technique, poor adherence, comorbidities, exacerbation triggers, over-use of a long-acting inhaled beta2-agonist, psychosocial factors, adverse effects of medications
    • Steps to optimize management:
      • Check, review, correct and demonstrate inhaler technique every visit
      • Confirm if patient has a written asthma action plan and confirm if the patient understands what is included
      • Treat comorbidities and modifiable risk factors
      • Consider lifestyle modifications, avoidance of triggers and other non-pharmacologic treatments
      • Consider the following if not previously given: Nonbiologic therapies (eg Tiotropium bromide, Azithromycin, long-acting beta2-agonist, leukotriene modifiers), biologic therapies (eg Mepolizumab, Dupilumab, Benralizumab, etc), high-dose inhaled corticosteroids
    • Assess patient's inflammatory phenotype if unresponsive to optimized management strategies and consider add-on biologic treatments (eg Mepolizumab, Dupilumab, Benralizumab, etc) once severe asthma phenotype has been identified
      • Recommended biologic type-2 targeted treatments include:
        • Omalizumab for patients ≥6 years with sensitization to inhaled allergens on skin prick testing or specific IgE, total serum IgE and body weight within specified dosing range, and number of exacerbations within the last year considered under severe allergic asthma
        • Mepolizumab (for patients aged ≥6 years), Benralizumab (for patients aged ≥12 years), or Reslizumab (for patients aged ≥18 years) in patients with blood eosinophils above specified level and with number of exacerbations within the last year considered under severe eosinophilic asthma
        • Dupilumab for patients ≥12 years with severe type 2 inflammation characterized by raised eosinophils and/or raised FeNO, or who require maintenance therapy with oral corticosteroids
      • Review patient response after 3-4 months
    • Advise patient to follow-up after 3-6 months to assess patient's response to treatment changes
      • Referral to a specialist or to a severe asthma clinic is recommended if asthma is still with uncontrolled even with modifications and optimization of treatment
      • If with uncontrolled symptoms and/or exacerbations after treatment step-down, return previous regimen and refer to a specialist or to a severe asthma clinic
    • Assess patient's inflammatory phenotype and considered add-on biologic treatments once identified
      • Review patient response after 3-4 months

    Managing Asthma Exacerbations

    First-line Treatment

    Oxygen

    • O2 should be administered via nasal cannula, mask or if required, head box (for some infants), to achieve arterial O2 saturation 93-95% (94-98% in children)
    • Good physiological outcomes were observed with controlled O2 therapy using pulse oximetry to maintain O2 saturation at 93-95% compared to high flow 100% O2 therapy
    • O2 therapy should be titrated against pulse oximetry to maintain a satisfactory oxygen saturation
      • However, O2 should not be withheld if oximetry is not available

    Beta2-Agonists (Inhaled, Short-Acting)

    • Bronchodilatation equivalent to nebulizer can be achieved using a metered dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer
      • Onset is more rapid, fewer side effects and less time in the emergency department
    • Inhalation via nebulizer may be easier for children
    • Should use continuous inhaled therapy initially, then followed by intermittent on-demand therapy

    Epinephrine

    • May be considered in severe exacerbations associated with anaphylaxis and angioedema, if inhaled or parenteral beta2-agonists are not available or patient is not responsive to inhaled short-acting beta2-agonists
    • Not routinely used in asthma exacerbation

    Additional Bronchodilators

    Anticholinergics (Inhaled)

    • Eg Ipratropium bromide
    • When nebulized with beta2-agonist, may achieve better bronchodilatation than either drug alone
    • This combination should be used before considering xanthines

    Xanthines

    • Eg Theophylline, Aminophylline
    • Bronchodilator effect is less than that of beta2-agonist
    • Should only be considered as an alternative agents if other agents do not work and because of the risk of side effects

    Corticosteroids (Systemic)

    • Considered a fundamental part in the treatment of all exacerbations except in the mildest form
    • Especially recommended when:
      • Initial short-acting beta2-agonist dose has not achieved a lasting improvement
      • Exacerbation occurred even though patient is receiving oral corticosteroids or high-dose inhaled steroids
      • Previous life-threatening exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids
    • Oral doses are usually as effective as IV
      • IV may be considered if GI absorption is questionable or if an IV line needs to be established
      • IM may be used if the patient is being discharged from the emergency room and compliance is an issue

    Corticosteroids (Inhaled)

    • Effective as part of combination therapy for asthma exacerbations
    • High dose of inhaled corticosteroid can give the same effect as 40 mg oral Prednisone, but cost may be an inhibiting factor

    Magnesium (Mg)

    • IV Mg should not be used routinely in exacerbations but may be considered in adults with FEV1 <25-30% predicted at presentation, adults and children who do not respond to initial treatment with persistent hypoxemia and children whose FEV1 does not improve above 60% of predicted after 1 hour of care
      • Usual dose: 2 g IV over 20 minutes (max dose: 2 g)
      • In children: 40-50 mg/kg slow IV over 20-60 minutes (max dose: 2 g)
    • For children ≤2 year with severe exacerbations, nebulized isotonic Magnesium may be combined with inhaled Salbutamol and Ipratropium during the initial stages of therapy
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