asthma
ASTHMA
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in the lungs of children and adults.
The patient usually complains of shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing with wheezing.
Goals of treatment are effective symptom control with minimal or no exacerbations, minimal or no nocturnal and daytime symptoms, no limitations on activities, minimal or no need for reliever treatment, and minimal adverse effects of medication.
  1. Al Moamary, et al. Utilization & responsiveness of the asthma control test (ACT) at the initiation of therapy for patients with asthma: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2012;12:14. doi: 10.1186/1471-2466-12-14. Accessed 04 Oct 2012
  2. Bacharier LB, Boner A, Carlsen KH, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of asthma in childhood: a PRACTALL consensus report. Allergy. 2008 Jan;63(2):005-34. Accessed 30 Jul 2010. PMID: 18053013
  3. Balter MS, Bell AD, Kaplan AG, et al. Diagnosis of asthma in adults. CMAJ. 2009 Nov;181(10):E210-E220. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.080006. Accessed 30 Jul 2010. PMID: 19770241
  4. Liu Ah, Covar RA, Spahn JD, et al. Childhood asthma. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007
  5. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Allergy-%26-Immunology/3/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Allergy-Immunology.xml
  6. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  7. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Respiratory-Medicine/40/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Respiratory-Medicine.xml
  8. British Thoracic Society, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. SIGN. http://www.sign.ac.uk. Jun 2009. Accessed 30 Jul 2010.
  9. Ministry of Health Singapore. Clinical practice guidelines: management of asthma. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. Jan 2008. Accessed 29 Jul 2010.
  10. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP). Expert panel report 3: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Aug 2007. Accessed 29 Jul 2010.
  11. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA safety update: asthma medications. FDA. http://www.fda.gov/. Nov 2008. Accessed 30 Jul 2010.
  12. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: new safety requirements for long-acting inhaled asthma medications called Long-Acting Beta-Agonists (LABAs). FDA. http://www.fda.gov/. Feb 2010. Accessed 04 Aug 2010.
  13. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Updated 2009. GINA website. http://www.ginasthma.com. 2009. Accessed 29 Jul 2010.
  14. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. GINA. http://www.ginasthma.org. Dec 2012. Accessed 19 Feb 2013.
  15. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. GINA. http://www.ginasthma.org/. 2010.
  16. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for the diagnosis & management of asthma in children 5 years and younger. GINA. http://www.ginasthma.org/. 2009. Accessed 10 Aug 2010.
  17. Toward Optimized Practice (Alberta). Guideline for acute asthma in adults and children. http://www.topalbertadoctors.org/. 2009. Accessed 30 Jul 2010.
  18. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Diagnosis and management of asthma. http://www.icsi.org. Jul 2012.
  19. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Health care guidelines: diagnosis and management of asthma. http://www.icsi.org. Jun 2010. Accessed 29 Jul 2010.
  20. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). http://www.ginasthma.org/. 2014.
  21. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Updated 2015. GINA website. http://www. ginasthma.org/. 2015. Accessed 29 Apr 2015.
  22. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Updated 2016. GINA website. http://ginasthma.org/. 2016. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  23. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Updated 2017. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). http://ginasthma.org/. 2017. Accessed 24 Feb 2017.
  24. Kirenga BJ, Schwartz JI, de Jong C, et al. Guidance on the diagnosis and management of asthma among adults in resource limited settings. Afr Health Sci. 2015 Dec;15(4):1189–1199. doi: 10.4314/ahs.v15i4.18. PMID: 26958020
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  26. British Thoracic Society, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: A national clinical guideline. Revised 2016. British Thoracic Society. https://www.brit-thoracic.org.uk. Sep 2016.
  27. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention (2018 update). GINA. http://www.ginasthma.org. 2018.
  28. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Asthma: diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management. NICE. https://www.nice.org.uk. Nov 2017.
  29. Liu M. Pathogenesis of asthma. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. May 2016.
  30. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Pocket guide for asthma management and prevention for adults and children older than 5 years. A pocket guide for healthcare professionals: Updated 2019. GINA. https://ginasthma.org/. 2019.
  31. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). What’s new in GINA 2019? GINA global strategy for asthma management and prevention. GINA. https://ginasthma.org/. 2019.
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